Background: The CCDC family plays a significant role in the development and progression of malignant tumors. However, the relationship between CCDC family members and HCC progression is incompletely known. This study used bioinformatics analysis to investigate the expression as well as clinical prognostic value of CCDC family members in HCC and to predict the role of CCDCs family in the development and progression of HCC.
Methods: This study utilized the data from two platforms databases to explore the diagnostic value and prognostic significance of CCDC family members by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier curve and log-rank test, ROC and nomogram diagnostic and prognostic analysis methods. GSEA and tumor microenvironment analysis were employed to investigate the underlying mechanisms and cell-cell interactions of CCDCs family in the development and progression of HCC. The relationship between mutational signatures and CCDCs family were evaluated in HCC patients with somatic mutation.
Results: Five CCDC family members (CCDC34, CCDC137, CCDC77, CCDC93 and CCDC21) mRNA expression showed significantly higher in HCC tissues than in normal tissues and high expression levels of these genes predicted poor prognosis in HCC patients. The combined effect analysis of five CCDCs family prognostic markers suggests that the prognosis difference for CCDC family members combination was more significant than that for any individual CCDC family genes. We then developed a risk score model that could predict the prognosis of HCC, and nomogram gene expression was visualized with the probability of predicting the prognosis of HCC by clinical factors. GSEA revealed that, while five CCDCs family combined high expression was associated with increased cell cycle progression and low expression was associated with complement activation pathway. Mutation analysis showed that the combined high expression group had a higher TP53 mutation rate than the combined low expression group, and the high expression group showed higher TMB, which was associated with a better prognosis than high TMB.
Conclusions: Our data suggest that the expression of CCDC34, CCDC137, CCDC77, CCDC93 and CCDC21 may be potential prognostic markers in HCC and in combination have a strong interaction and better predictive value for HCC prognosis.