Background: “Fishery-photovoltaic (PV) Integration” is a novel aquaculture model which aims to combine green energy with modern fisheries to improve socioeconomic benefits while ensuring aquaculture production and electricity consumption. To determine the practicability of the “Fishery-PV Integration” model, an experiment was conducted with Penaeus monodon as a model, in which the growth rates of shrimp, water quality conditions, and the micro-ecological environment were studied.
Results: After 105 days of rearing, P. monodon (initial weight of 0.006 ± 0.001 g) reached an average body weight of 11.69 ± 0.92 g. The water quality was stable (C(NH4+) ≤ 1.57 mg/L), and the shrimps were healthy. It was determined via metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing that the dominant phyla present in shrimp intestines, water, and effluent were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteriota, Bacteroidota, and Verrucomicrobiota. In addition, a large number of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the “Fishery-PV Integration” pond, which were helpful to maintain the stability of the water quality. The relative abundance of Vibrio as a common opportunistic pathogen for shrimp was relatively low, which is beneficial to promote the healthy growth of shrimp. In addition to maintaining water quality stability, microorganisms played an essential role in regulating intestinal amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy metabolism. In the water and effluent, a high proportion of ABC transporters and quorum sensing play an important role in mitigating environmental toxins and regulating the physiological and metabolic activities of microbial communities. Notably, only 123 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were identified within the “Fishery-PV Integration” pond. This result is significantly lower than the numbers found in other studies, indicating that shrimp cultured in the “Fishery-PV Integration” pond had a higher level of food safety.
Conclusions: This paper was the first reported the “Fishery-PV Integration” culture mode and preliminarily reveal the characteristics of the microflora and ARGs distribution in a “Fishery-PV Integration” pond. The results show that “Fishery-PV Integration” farming is a sustainable, green, and safe culture method.