Characteristics of patients
As shown in Table 1, a total of 110 patients with breast cancer were included in our study: 2 males and 108 females. The mean age of them was 52.28 years (range, 34–72 years). All TIVAPs were implanted for cancer chemotherapy. The mean time of TIVAP placement was 47.5 min (33-95 min). The locations of TIVAPs on the right upper chest walls were observed in 73 cases (66.36%) and 37 cases were found on the left upper chest walls (33.64 %). The inserted vein was the IJV in 83 cases (75.45 %) and the subclavian vein chosen as puncture site was observed in 27 cases (24.55 %).
Comparison of achievement ratio
All TIVAPs were successfully implanted in our department. As shown in table 2, the technique of the blind puncture was applied to 98 patients (100.00% success rate) and the method of preoperative ultrasonic marker was used in the remaining patients (100.00% success rate). No significant difference was found between two groups (p>0.05).
As shown in table 3, hematoma occurred in 1 patient (0.91%) and retreated by local treatment. Bleeding was found in 1 patient (0.91%) and healed immediately after local hemostasis. Cardiac arrhythmia was observed in 1 patient (0.91%) and its possible cause was that the catheter of the port was inserted too deeply. The symptom disappeared after port relocation. The total rate of early complications was 2.73% in all.
Late complications occurred in 8 cases (7.27%). As shown in table 4, 8 patients were involved in late complications, which occurred 3 days after operation, including infection in 2 cases (ports were removed), cutaneous necrosis in 1 case (port was removed and necrotic tissue was cleaned out), turn-over of the chamber in 1 case (external relocation) and venous thrombosis in 4 cases (3.64%). The overall rate of late complications was 7.27%.
Comparison of complications by two means of puncture
As shown in table 5, in 98 cases by blind puncture, 10 patients were found to be involved in complications (10.20%). One patient was observed to be involved in complication in 12 cases (8.33%). It is no significant difference between two groups (p>0.05).
Port removal for complications
As table 6, the TIVAPs in 5 patients (4.55%) were removed due to the complications of ports implantation in this study. The remaining 105 cases were removed after finishing the whole chemotherapy cycle.
Comparison of complications by different port application day
In our investigation, 7 cases were found to be involved in complications in the group of port application on TIVAP implantation day and 4 patients were observed to have complications in the group of port application 7 days after TIVAP implantation day. There was on significant difference between two groups (p>0.05).
Length of the catheter
Length of the catheter differs according to the different puncture site. As table 8, in our department, the mean length of the catheter was 16.98 ㎝ in right internal jugular puncture, 18.60 ㎝ in left internal jugular puncture, 13.33 ㎝ in right subclavian puncture and 13.86 in left subclavian puncture.