Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) veintemillasi Martinez, Leon, Mihalca, Dujardin & Le Pont n. sp. (Figs. 1-17)
Type material and depository
Male Holotype: Marimonos station, in the Marimonos mountain range, Bolivia. Municipality of Palos Blancos (15°35’02’S-67°15’07’W), altitude 900m, Sud Yungas province, Department of La Paz (CBF La Paz), Bolivia.
Female allotype: idem holotype (CBF, La Paz).
Paratypes. 5 males and 5 females, collected from the same locality, in coll. CBF, La Paz, Bolivia; UPAMETROP/IINSAD, La Paz, Bolivia; MNHN, Paris, France.
Male Holotype. Sand fly of small size, generally gray in color, mesonotum and abdominal tergites light brown, measuring 2 mm from the tip of the labrum to the end of the gonocoxite.
Head. Length 0.298 (0.294-0.324) including the clypeus; maximum width 0.286 (0.284-0.321). Head length/head width ratio 1.04. Interocular distance 0.101 (0.85-0.101) equal to the diameter of 5.5 facets. Labrum-epipharynx (LE) length 0.192 (0.181-0.214) from the edge of the clypeus. Antennal flagellomeres: fI 0.171 (0.160-0.201), fII + fIII = 0.077 + 0.087. Ratio fI / LE = 0.89 (a = 0.91). Short ascoids, only visible on the first flagellomeres. Third flagellomere without sensilla in rosette in the preapical region. Palpus: total length 0.591 (0.548-0.673), respective lengths of the palpomeres: P1 0.030 (0.025-0.039); P2 0.105 (0.102-0.127); P3 0.114 (0.108-0.125); P4 0.079 (0.077-0.095); P5 0.263 (0.202-0.311); palpal formula: 1-4-(2-3)-5 or 1-4-(3-2)-5. Cibarium armed with a row of tiny, sharp, slightly sclerotized teeth of irregular size, and an anterior, discontinuous row of dot-shaped denticles. Sclerotized arch complete, well chitinized; pigmented patch, triangular, striated, extending anteriorly. Narrow pharynx, length 0.140, maximum width 0.037, with posterior denticulate scales.
Thorax. Length 0.429. Unpigmented paratergite. Clear pleuras, except for the basal region of the katepisternum and katepimeron, slightly pigmented. Upper anepisternal bristles: 6+7 (from 5 to 10 per pleura) and proepimeral bristles: 2+4 (2 to 4 per pleura). Wings: length 1.385 (1.385-1.560), maximum width 0.405 (0.376-0.440). Length/width ratio 3.41. Wing indices: alpha 0.305 (0.289-0.361), beta 0.153 (0.136-0.174), gamma 0.202 (0.200-0.244), delta 0.099 (0.079-0.151); alpha/beta ratio 1.99 (a = 2.06). Legs lengths of the femur, tibia, and basitarsus, respectively: front legs 0.505-0.530-0.325; middle legs 0.549-0.660-0.420 and hind legs 0.580-0.815-0.490.
Abdomen. Length 1.097 including the gonocoxite. Tergal papillae present from 3rd to 7th tergite. Second sternite with 7 to 9 bristles on each apical region. Gonocoxite: length 0.172 (0.172-0.193), maximum width 0.055, without perennial bristles. Gonostyle length 0.104 (0.100-0.114) bearing 4 strong spines: an apical spine, an upper external spine inserted in the distal third, and the spines inferior and internal implanted in mid-segment; presence of a fine spiniform, subterminal bristle. Paramere: length 0.150 (0.145-0.157), measured from the dorsal margin; rectangular base, then posteriorly finger-shaped, garnished with erect bristles, curved anteriorly. Aedeagus conical, well sclerotized, with the tip reaching the finger-shaped part of the paramere. Lateral lobe without perennial bristles, similar in size to that of the gonocoxite; length 0.177 (0.161-0.188); sub-median lamella, without particularities. Genital pump (GP) length 0.111 (0.100-0.119; a = 0.109); genital filaments (GF) with finely striated apical third, and smooth apex, length 0.434 (0.427-0.490; a = 0.448), duct/pump ratio GF/GP 3.90 (3.90-4.38; a = 4.12).
Female allotype. Sand fly identical in coloration to that of the male, measuring 2.45 mm from the tip of the labrum to the end of the cerci.
Head. Length including clypeus 0.363 (0.337-0.363), maximum width 0.347 (0.325-0.348); Head length/head width ratio 1.04. Interocular distance 0.129 (0.108-0.129), equal to the diameter of 6 facets. Labrum-epipharynx (LE) length 0.296 (0.275-0.296) from edge of clypeus; maxillary laciniae: 6 external teeth and 23 internal. Antennas: length of flagellomeres, fI 0.178 (0.166-0.183), fII + fIII = 0.083 + 0.084; ratio fI / LE = 0.60 (a = 0.61). In fIII, absence of papilla in rosette in preapical region. Ascoids strong and short, well staggered, not reaching the apical third. Palpus: total length 0.771 (0.636-0.771). The palp segments measuring respectively: P1 0.039 (0.033-0.040); P2 0.149 (0.134-0.154); P3 0.146 (0.134-0.146); P4 0.102 (0.083-0.102); P5 0.335 (0.236-0.335); Palpal formula: 1-4-(2-3)-5, segments 2 and 3 subequal; Newstead’s sensilla not visible. Cibarium with 4 equidistant acute horizontal teeth of equal size; a row of 9 to 12 vertical teeth, and several lateral, dot shaped, grouped teeth. Very distinct sclerotized area, thickened anteriorly, triangular, narrowed at the level of the chitinous arch; this last, rounded and continuous from one edge of the cibarium to the other, surpassing it laterally. Pharynx: with the most posterior scales, denticulate; length 0.165, maximum width 0.070.
Thorax. Length 0.574. Pigmentation identical to that of the male. Upper anepisternal bristles: 7+11 (7 to 12 per pleura) and proepimeral bristles 5+6 (2 to 6 per pleura). Wings: length 1.760 (1.649-1.795), maximum width 0.525 (0.485-0.545); Length/width ratio 3.35. Wing indices: alpha 0.434 (0.410-0.491), beta 0.195 (0.187-0.224), gamma 0.310 (0.237-0.320), and delta 0.186 (0.175-0.227), alpha/beta ratio 2.22 (a = 2.16). Legs lengths of the femur, tibia, and basitarsus, respectively: front legs 0.660-0.630-0.375; middle legs 0.673-0.775-0.450 and hind legs 0.725-0.990-0.545.
Abdomen. Length 1.225. Second sternite with 8-10 bristles on each apical half. Spermatheca, like a pear-shaped sac, finely wrinkled transversely, head deeply invaginated in the spermatheca, with pluri-lobed apex (Table 2), fan-shaped; Importantly, the head is slightly offset from the axis of the spermatheca, and therefore most often emerges laterally after mounting. Common duct and individual ducts not measurable, but a long common duct presence.
Etymology: Dedicated to Dr. Felix Veintemillas for his great contribution to the research and control of infectious and parasitic diseases in Bolivia, the main Bolivian reference on leishmaniasis in the mid-20th century.
Specimens of the new species Pi. veintemillasi were collected through entomological surveys carried out, both, at the ground and canopy level, using CDC light-traps as well as protected human bait. Misidentified as Pi. (pif.) nevesi, Pi. (pif.) veintemillasi was the most anthropophilic species at the canopy level and the third most anthropophilic on the ground, after Psyhodopygus carrerai carrerai (vector of Leishmania braziliensis) and Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus (identified naturally infected by flagellates) . Two species of Pifanomyia were collected in sympatry ; both presented similar size and a gray pigmentation: Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) serrana Damasceno & Arouck, 1949 (Serrana series) and Pi. (Pif.) nuneztovari Ortiz, 1954 (incertae sedis), syn. Pi. (Pif.) nuneztovari anglesi Le Pont & Desjeux 1984 .
Following Galati , the new species, Pi. (Pif.) veintemillasi, belongs to the subgenus Pifanomyia, Evansi series, according to the following morphological characteristics: palp P5 to be larger in length than P3 in both sexes, which is a relevant feature of the subgenus Pifanomyia; in the males, presence of short ascoids, reaching half of the segment, a strong 4-spines gonostyle, and the presence of a preapical bristle; a gonocoxite without tuft, and a simple paramere; in the females, ascoids reaching the subapical region of the segment, an hypopharynx with deep apicolateral teeth, and a short row of external teeth for the maxillae; a cibarium with 4 horizontal teeth, the vertical teeth fitting into one or two transverse rows; a complete chitinous arch, and a narrow, triangular, pigmented area; spermathecae with a long common duct, vesicular body, without apical ring, transversely wrinkled, and well individualized head. Finally, the absence of sensilla in rosette on the 3rd flagellomer fIII in Pi. (Pif.) veintemillasi confirms it belongs to the Evansi series.
The morphologically similar species in this series are Pi. (Pif.) nevesi and Pi. (Pif.) maranonensis Galati et al., 1995 , noting the latter is only present on the Ecuador-Peru border. Pi. (Pif.) veintemillasi is different from Pi. (Pif.) nevesi based on larger size and pigmentation of the lower part of the pleura. Significantly shorter genital filaments in the new species shed light on the doubts that puzzled about the criteria for identifying Pi. (Pif.) nevesi : a genital filaments/genital pump (GF/GP) ratio = 4.12 notably shorter than ratio= 4.60 established for Pi. (Pif.) nevesi (Table 1). In the Pi. (Pif.) veintemillasi female (Table 2), the labrum-epipharynx (LE) is larger; the spermatheca has a purse-like shape and is finely wrinkled, with a multi-lobed head, opening out laterally, while in Pi. (Pif.) nevesi, it is oblong, with a fine head emerging at the apex. Pi. (Pif.). veintemillasi is only present in Bolivia in the forest regions of the sub-Andean cordillera (300-1400m altitude) belonging to the wide basin of the high tributaries of the Amazon, whereas Pi. (Pif.) nevesi has been found far from this area in the lowland region.
The difference is more evident with Pi. (Pif.) maranonensis, which has a pigmented paratergite; the male has a tuft of bristles at the gonocoxite, and the GF/GP ratio = 4.73; the female of this species has a rounded spermatheca, with a head strongly invaginated to mid-body, and emerging laterally (Tables 1-2).
A female of Pi. (Pif.) nevesi was identified by Velasco & Martins (1974) from the foothills of La Paz, in Huacakarita (altitude 800m), approximately 50 km from Marimonos in the sub-Andean region . Its metric data correspond to Pi. (Pif.) veintemillasi, confirming the presence of a cryptic species that is distinct from Pi. (Pif.) nevesi.
As a final remark, in Bolivia, on the La Paz-Riberalta transect, Pi. (Pif.) veintemillasi and Pi. (Pif.) nevesi presented an allopatric distribution, confined respectively to the sub-Andean (300-1400m) and the Amazonian regions (130-200m), separated by 400 km of the Beni plain.
In Peru, in the region of San Martin, with a geographical configuration similar to that of the department of La Paz in Bolivia, Pi. (Pif.) veintemillasi could represent the species, similar to Pi. (Pif.) nevesi, reported by Beati et al. . Taxonomical studies through more recent entomological collections should give light to the possible presence of this species in Peru and neighboring countries.
This morphological description was based on mounted biological material, without available specimens for molecular studies, nevertheless, will be develop further field surveys in sub-Andean region, to collect specimens for molecular studies needed to complete the genetic identity of this new species in comparison with similar taxa.