There are a large number of urban remnant mountains (URMs) in the built-up areas of karst mountainous cities, which are the main components of urban habitats and play a variety of irreplaceable ecosystem services functions such as maintaining local biodiversity. Based on InVEST model and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model, this study quantitatively analyzed the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of land use/land cover (LULC), landscape pattern and habitat quality (HQ), and explored the relationship between LULC and HQ in a typical karst mountainous city. Results showed: (1) From 2008 to 2018, LULC change in the study area was intense, with cultivated land and URMs being converted into construction land. Moreover, urban landscape fragmentation was serious and landscape patch spatial heterogeneity was high; (2) The overall level of HQ in the study area was low and the spatial aggregation characteristics were obvious. The high value area was mainly distributed in the area of large urban green space (UGS) and URMs, while the low value area was mainly concentrated in the area of construction land and traffic land;(3) GWR analysis showed that LULC was significantly correlated with HQ change, natural environment determined the overall distribution of HQ, human activities played a leading role in HQ change, and urbanization process had spatial heterogeneity on HQ change; (4) URMs iwas the main contributor of high level HQ, but its encroachment by construction land and the increase of surrounding building density make the quality of URMs habitat degraded obviously. It is urgent to strengthen the management of urban ecological environment and properly deal with the relationship between urban expansion and urban natural environment. This study is helpful to further understand the relationship between LULC and HQ evolution in karst mountainous cities, and is of great significance for urban biodiversity conservation, ecological security protection and high-quality urban development.