Background: Diabetic Retinopathy is one of the serious complications patients’ diabetic patients suffer from. Little is known about which risk factors are associated with this complication. The aim of this study was therefore to identify determinants of Diabetic Retinopathy in Jimma University Medical Center.
Methods: A facility-based case-control study was conducted. Cases were Diabetic patients with diabetic retinopathy and who were on follow up at the Jimma University Medical Center while controls were Diabetic patients but free of diabetic retinopathy and who were on follow up at the Jimma University Medical Center. Cases and controls were identified and 311 of them were recruited using systematic random sampling. Data were entered into the Epi-Data version 4.1 and analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Binary Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify determinants of diabetic retinopathy.
Result: A total of 106 cases and 205 controls diabetic participated in the study. Being ≥60 years of age (AOR=5.04,95%CI: 1.83,13.87),being illiterate (AOR=7.17, 95% CI: 2.61,19.7), poor adherence to medication (AOR =3: 95% CI: 1.29,6.95),having high systolic blood pressure (AOR=3.38:95% CI: 1.26,9.05), having family history of Diabetes Mellitus (AOR=3.95: 95% CI: 1.64,9.54), having other micro vascular complications (AOR=3.76,95% CI: 1.33,10.66), poor glycemic control (AOR=9.08, 95%CI: 3.7,22.29), poor cholesterol control (AOR= 0.21, 95%CI: 0.08,0.51) and being anaemic (AOR= 2.8, 95%CI: 1.05,7.47) were the independent determinants of diabetic retinopathy.
Conclusion: This study found that poor adherence to medication, being at the age of 60 years and above, being illiterate patients, having high systolic blood pressure, having a family history of Diabetes Mellitus, having other micro vascular complication, poor glycemic control, poor cholesterol control and being anemic patient were the independent determinants of diabetic retinopathy. Therefore, more attention should be given to older age and illiterate patients. Giving more emphasis for patients poorly adhered to anti-diabetic medications and giving advice for diabetic patients with high systolic blood pressure to follow their blood pressure regularly are also vital. Diabetic patients should also control their Blood sugar and blood cholesterol levels to prevent diabetic retinopathy or reduce its further complications.