Intraspecific diversity (genetic diversity) is an important component of biodiversity. A substantial body of evidence has demonstrated positive direct or indirect effects of plant genetic diversity on plant performance. However, it has remained unclear whether plant genetic diversity increases plant performance by reducing the pressure of plant-damaging organisms across trophic levels in different plant life forms, ecosystems and climatic zones. Here, we analyse 4702 effect sizes reported in 413 studies that consider effects of plant genetic diversity on trophic groups and their interactions. We found that increasing plant genetic diversity decreases the performance of plant-damaging organisms including invertebrate herbivores, weeds, plant-feeding nematodes and plant diseases, while increasing the performance of plants and natural enemies of herbivores. We also provide evidence that plant genetic diversity increases plant performance by reducing plant-damaging organism pressure. These results reveal that plant genetic diversity often influences multiple trophic levels in ways that enhance natural pest control in managed ecosystems and consumer control of plants in natural ecosystems for sustainable plant production.