The response of a massif to stresses generated by tunnel excavation depends essentially on the geological conditions, the geometry of the tunnel and its underground position. The major problem related to the construction of these structures is to ensure the stability of the whole tunnel-ground, by controlling the various deformation generated during the construction
In this context, the present paper examines the effect of these conditions on the behavior of tunnels and the surrounding soil. The study is applied to a real tunnel, in this case the tunnel of Djebel El Ouahch, Algeria was taken as a reference model. The research includes a parametric study to evaluate the effect of several parameters on the behavior of the tunnel and surrounding soil such as the tunnel anchoring depth, the tunnel-soil interface rate, and the shape of the tunnel cross section. The analysis is performed using the PLAXIS 3D TUNNEL calculation code with an elastoplastic Mohr-coulomb model for the soil behavior. The results show that the strongest and most stable position is the mid-deep tunnel with a circular section, with a non-slip interface between the tunnel and the ground. These outcomes can help to understand the effects of various influences parameters which control the stability of the tunnel in a soil with bad characteristics.