CRISPR-associated transposons (CASTs) exist in different groups of bacteria, including certain cyanobacteria, which contain type V-K CAST systems. These systems contain genes encoding Tn7-like transposase subunits and a divergent number of cargo genes. How the activity of these systems is controlled in situ has remained largely unknown but possibly regulatory genes within these elements are prime candidates. Deletion of the respective regulator gene alr3614 in the cyanobacterium Anabaena (Nostoc) sp. PCC 7120 led to the overexpression of CRISPR tracrRNA, precursor crRNAs and mRNAs encoding the Cas12k effector protein (all3613) and Tn7-like transposase subunits. Upon complementation, these same genes were repressed again. DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays verified the direct interaction between Alr3614 and the promoter of cas12k and identified a widely conserved binding motif. Structural analysis of Alr3614 at 1.5 Å resolution revealed that it belongs to the MerR-type transcription factor family but with distinct dimerization and effector-binding domains. This protein assembles into a homodimer interacting with DNA through its N-terminal winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH) domain and binds an effector molecule through a C-terminal α-helical domain lacking a conserved cysteine. These results identify Alr3614 as a transcriptional repressor of the CAST system in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. We suggest naming this family of repressors CvkR for Cas V-K repressors, which are at the core of a widely conserved regulatory mechanism that controls type V-K CAST systems.