New techniques for Medfly control are being developed to replace traditional organophosphate insecticide applications. Insecticide bait sprays have been used against C. capitata, recently. Mass trapping with liquid or dry food-based baits offers promising medfly control within Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs (Navarro-Llopis et al., 2011). Food-based lures primarily mimic nitrogen sources that provide the protein required by adults to reach sexual maturity. The female-biased attractants are generally food lures. The reason for this is that females have higher needs for protein acquisition than males for egg development (Christenson & Foote, 1960; Kouloussis et al., 2017). Hydrolyzed yeasts contain high protein (San Martin et al., 2020). Our study supported that hydrolyzed yeast is more attractive to significantly more females than others.
By the mid-1990s, an aqueous solution of torula yeast borax (TYB) pellets (López et al., 1971) was the standard food attractant used in fruit fly trapping systems worldwide (Heath et al., 1995) and is still widely used (Enkerlin & Reyes, 2018). California, for instance, recently deploys five TYB-baited traps per mi2 (2.59 km2) as a component of a fruit fly detection network that covers approximately 25,000 mi2 (64,750 km2) in the southern part of the state (Vargas et al., 2013). Our study supported that hydrolyzed yeast is more attractive to C. capitata than trehalose.
The attractants of C. capitata have been used protein and sugar recently. Different formulations of protein hydrolysates are commercially available for fruit fly control Biodelear is a patented, female-specific attractant produced by the Maillard reaction of fructose, urea, and water at a ratio of 3:1:1 (Kouloussis et al., 2022). In our study, the fructose attracted significantly more females than alpha glucose and control.
Various formulations of protein hydrolysates are commercially available for C. capitata control. GF-120 Naturalyte is a formulated bait mixture that contains the toxicant spinosad and 99.8% inert ingredients (including water, different types of sugar, and maize protein). The M3 bait station comprises a protein attractant and insecticide housed in a plastic device. The flies feed on the bait and die soon afterward (Ware et al., 2003).
In a mass trapping control of Ceratitis species in Turkey and Nigeria,( Ekesi & Tanga, 2016) and B. dorsalis in Kenya and Uganda, (Umeh & Garcia, 2008) baits based on brewers-waste are used as a commercial hydrolyzed protein bait (e.g. NuLure).
Our study supports the attraction of some of the sugars and yeast that can be used in mass trapping and insecticide bait sprays to manage C. capitata. The present study demonstrates that trehalose is more attractive to C. capitata than other sugars. Also, our study supported that yeast + trehalose is more attractive to C. capitata than others.
In the present study, the behavioral response of C. capitata to some sugars and yeast was confirmed. Our conclusions support the conjecture that C.capitata responds to trehalose and yeast. These could be novel monitoring tools. Finally, research is needed to determine whether a combination of sugar, yeast, and ammonium odors is a more effective and species-specific novel monitoring tool than the type of odor alone.