Human fingerprints are randomly created during fetal activity in the womb, resulting in unique and physically irreproducible fingerprint patterns that are applicable as a biological cryptographic primitive. Similarly, stochastically knitted single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network surfaces exhibit inherently random and unique electrical characteristics that can be exploited as a physical unclonable function (PUF) in the authentication. In this study, filamentous M13 bacteriophages are used as a biological gluing template to create a random SWNT network surface with mechanical flexibility, with electrical properties determined by random variation during fabrication. The resistance profile between two adjacent electrodes was mapped for these M13-mediated SWNT network surfaces, with the results demonstrating a unique resistance profile for each M13-SWNT device, similar to that of human fingerprints. Randomness and uniqueness measures were evaluated as respectively 50.5% and 50% using generated challenge–response pairs. Min-entropy for unpredictability evaluation of the M13-WNT based PUFs resulted in 0.98. Our results showed that M13-SWNT random network exhibits cryptographic characteristics when used in a bio-inspired PUF device.