Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intestinal autoimmune condition that includes both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. It’s becoming increasingly common, but treatment is difficult, in part because the exact mechanism is unclear. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are produced when gut bacteria break down dietary fiber, may help prevent and treat this intractable disease. Reduced gut levels of SCFAs and SFCA-producing bacteria are linked to IBD development, suggesting the importance of these metabolites in IBD prevention, and SCFAs can alleviate IBD processes in multiple ways. For example, they can fight intestinal inflammation by activating G protein-coupled receptor proteins and inhibiting histone deacetylase enzymes, as well as by suppressing innate immune responses. SCFAs can also promote intestinal barrier integrity by regulating networks of cytokine molecules. Specifically, they can increase the levels of barrier-defending IL10 cytokines and reduce the levels of barrier-disrupting IL17 cytokines. Aside from these effects, SCFAs exert anticancer activity, providing additional benefits for patients with IBD. Although more clinical trials are needed, the existing evidence suggests that SCFA supplementation is a viable therapy for IBD, offering hope for individuals living with this difficult condition.