A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on dual-layered air hole shaped photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is proposed to realize the simultaneous measurement of refractive index (RI). The plasma materials silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) were sequentially coated on the outer surface of PCF to obtain enhanced sensing properties. By carefully adjusting the geometrical parameters, the simulation results show a maximum wavelength sensitivity of 72000 nm/RIU for analyte refractive indices ranging from 1.26 to 1.365, which realizes the high-sensitivity sensing in the visible to near-infrared optical band. Moreover, the sensor attains a maximum figure of merit (FOM) of 229 and RI resolution of 1.29 × 10− 6. This work shows great potential for real-time, affordable, and accurate measurement in biomedical, biological and organic chemical domains.