With the acceleration of industrialization, haze pollution has become a severe environmental pollution problem, and green technology innovation is one feasible way to alleviate it. Based on the PM2.5 concentration data of 30 provinces in mainland China from 2011 to 2017, we use a spatial panel model to investigate the spatial characteristics of haze pollution and examine the impact of green technology innovation on it. Results show that haze pollution has spatial correlation and a time lag. Its spatial correlation is associated with geographical distance as well as the compound influence of distance and economic development. Green technology innovation and foreign investment have inhibitory and negative spillover effects on haze pollution. Industrial structure and energy consumption structure play a partial intermediary role between green technology innovation and haze pollution, and the former has a significant negative spillover, while the latter has a positive effect. To reduce haze pollution, China should improve the level of green technology innovation, use foreign investment wisely, and enhance policy support and guidance. It should also promote the rationalization of industrial structure, optimize energy structure and implement energy substitution. Finally, it is crucial that it should strengthen regional collaborative governance and build a multi-agent governance system.