Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the important superbugs distributed throughout the world. It causes minor skin infections to severe complications including nosocomial infections in both hospitals and community settings. These strains have multi-drug resistant property. Hence, they are difficult to manage which increase health-related costs and simultaneously intensifying the need for new antibiotics. The extent of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in children is largely unknown. The study determines the current status of S. aureus and MRSA causing various infections in pediatric patients visiting International Friendship Children’s Hospital (IFCH). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients visiting a hospital. Various clinical specimens were aseptically collected and processed according to standard microbiological procedures. Isolation and identification of S. aureus were done by microscopy, mannitol fermentation, and coagulase positivity. All identified S. aureus isolates subjected to in-vitro antibiogram by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique adopting Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline. Isolates resistant to cefoxitin were considered to be MRSA. Whereas, isolates produced D-shaped inhibition zone around clindamycin when kept near erythromycin were considered to be Inducible Clindamycin Resistant (ICR). Results: 672 various types of clinical samples were processed from the microbiology laboratory from June and November 2015. Out of 300 culture positive samples, 52 (17.3%) were S. aureus isolates, among them 39 (75.0%) were found to be MRSA. The D-test showed that Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin-B (MLSB) phenotype was 15.4%. Conclusion: The study shows the MRSA occurrence is prevalent in pediatric patients and newer classes’ drugs are found more effective than β-lactam drugs to treat S. aureus infection. However, restriction on the indiscriminate use of such drugs may be an effective strategy to control the drug resistance.
Keywords: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B (MLSB) phenotype, Inducible Clindamycin Resistant (ICR) test or D-zone test, Antibiotic resistance, Nepal