The study population consisted of 100 participants with mean age, 32.05±11.48years and age range, 18–67years. Out of the sample, 66% were males and 34% were females. The ages of males ranged from 20–67years with mean ± (SD), 33.98 ± 12.47years and that of females ranged from 18–54years with mean ± (SD) age, 28.29 ± 8.19years (Table 1).
Table 1: Distribution of socio-demographic characteristics (N = 100)
Sources of Knowledge of Transplant
Television was the main source of knowledge (49.4%) and Newspaper the least (20.2%) (Figure 1).
Knowledge and Awareness of Corneal Donation for Transplantation
Out of the 100 participants, 98% responded to the awareness of corneal transplant section out of which 32.7% of the respondents were aware of it.
52.94% of the female respondents knew about corneal transplant against 21.88% of males with a statistically significant association (p = 0.002, ᵪ2 = 9.745).
There was statistically significant association between awareness of corneal transplant and Ethnicity (p = 0.018, ᵪ2 = 14.822) and level of education (p = 0.001, ᵪ2 = 26.029). The association between knowledge of corneal transplant and occupation was strong (p = 0.000, ᵪ2 = 24.254) (Table 2
Table 2: Association between knowledge of Transplant and Socio-demographic characteristics
Attitudes toward Corneal Donation
Out of the respondents to willingness to donate eyes (cornea) section, 67.3% were willing to donate their corneas after death.
Age range was a relevant predictor of willingness to donate cornea after death (p = 0.043) with the age-range (≤ 20years, 51–60years and ≥60years) with highest willingness to donate (Figure 2).
All the 32 participants who were aware of corneal transplant answered questions on corneal donation. Out of the respondents, 28(87.5%) reported that corneal donation is done surgically whereas 1(3.1%) indicated that it is done medically (using drugs) and 3(9.4%) reported that it can either be done surgically or medically (Table 3).
Table 3: Knowledge of Corneal Donation
26% of the study participants answered the part that asked about reasons for not donating. Out of the respondents, 7.7% reported that, it was against their religious belief, 11.5% indicated their families were not in support, 26% did not have any reason and 43.2% did not have much knowledge about organ or corneal donation. On the reason for donating, 67.1% reported it was out of love for humanity; 20% indicated it was their religious obligation; 51.4 opined they were donating to give others the chance for a better life whilst 14.3% indicated they will only donate if they will take money (Table 4).
Table 4: Reasons for Donating and Decision Making
Participant indicated their reservations about donations in Ghana (multiple responses).
The majority (50.5%) indicated that they do not have much information about donation. Most of the respondents (36.6%) also indicated they do not trust the Ghana health system and 18.3% reported that their families will not agree.
Less than 50% of the respondents knew that one can donate his organ when alive or dead (Table 5).
Table 5: Concerns and Reservations about Donation and Transplant in Ghana
Willingness to Indicate Donor Status on Drivers’ License Form
97% of the sample stated whether they were willing to indicate their donor statuses when going for drivers’ license. Out of the respondents, 63.9% of them were willing to indicate their donor statuses on the Drivers’ License form when going for them. There was statistically significant association between willingness to indicate Donor status on Drivers’ License form and willingness to willingness to donate cornea after death (p = 0.000, ᵪ2 = 12.187) (Table 6).
Table 6: Association between willingness to donate cornea and willingness to indicate donor status on drivers’ license form