Vacancies are missing atoms in a crystalline material, and occur both at equilibrium (varying with temperature) and out of equilibrium such as when crystalline materials are damaged with radiation or corrosion. While we know of their importance, particularly regarding diffusive mechanisms, it is not straightforward to experimentally measure their concentration or to visualize them directly. Traditionally, measurements such as positron annihilation spectroscopy and to some degree X-ray diffraction can measure average concentrations, but generally lack the ability to visualize or quantify a heterogenous concentration of vacancies that can occur at the level of individual defects and microstructural features. Here, we present a method to map vacancy concentrations and their distribution with 1 nm resolution. Our method utilizes a Au thin film as a model to demonstrate the method via four-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy (4D-STEM) by correlating the differences between changes in lattice parameter and the volumetric thermal expansion during in situ heating experiments. The vacancy mapping methodology is also applied to non-equilibrium defects accumulated in pure Al via knock-on electron beam irradiation. Our method demonstrates the ability to map point defect concentrations in heterogeneous systems in situ with nanometer spatial resolution. The result is a technique that can provide direct measurements of vacancy concentrations at the level of individual defects in studies of materials in and out of equilibrium.