A tracheo-innominate fistula is a rare but life-threatening complication of tracheostomy and has a mortality rate of 100% without therapy. The underlying cause is an acquired fistula between the brachiocephalic trunk and the trachea, induced by a tracheostomy cannula's mechanical impact.
A 25-year-old female was admitted with pulsatile bleeding from a tracheostomy. The cause of the bleeding was a tracheo-innominate artery fistula, which was difficult to recognize. Said fistula was treated with implantation of a self-expanding stent-graft. The bleeding stopped immediately after the implantation of the stent-graft. Dual antiplatelet medication with aspirin IV and ticagrelor PO, bridged with a bolus of eptifibatide IV, was started right after the stent deployment.
Endovascular self-expanding stent-graft implantation is a viable treatment option for tracheo-innominate artery fistulae, especially in hemorrhagic emergencies. Antiplatelet medication is required to prevent distal emboli from the implant.