Seepage-induced piping erosion is observed in many geotechnical structures. This paper studies the piping mechanism of gap-graded soils during the whole piping erosion failure process under a supercritical hydraulic gradient. We define the supercritical ratio Ri and study the change in the parameters such as the flow velocity, hydraulic conductivity, and fine particle loss with Ri. Under steady flow, a formula for determining the flow velocity state of the sample with Ri according to the fine particle content and relative density of the sample was proposed; during the piping failure process, the influence of Rimax on the rate at which the flow velocity and hydraulic conductivity of the sample increase as Ri decreases was greater than that of the initial relative density and the initial fine particle content of the sample. Under unsteady flow, a larger initial relative density corresponds to a smaller amplitude of increase in the average value of the peak flow velocity with increasing Ri. Compared with the test under steady flow, the flow velocity under unsteady flow would experience abrupt changes. The relative position of the trend line L of the flow velocity varying with Ri under unsteady flow and the fixed peak water head height point A under steady flow were related to the relative density of the sample.