Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is the second vital livestock species after dairy cows, with 13% of total milk production and the highest annual growth rate . Buffaloes are traditionally raised under extensive husbandry practices in South-East Asia, which plays a vital role in their economy. The buffalo population of the world is dominated by Asian buffaloes, representing 92.52% of the global population of 194.29 million . Among the Asian countries, South Asia represents 79.74% of buffaloes, and the rest 20.26% in other countries . Particularly, Bangladesh has diverse indigenous domestic buffalo resources dominated by the population of riverine except for some swamp types, especially in the eastern part of the country . In addition, the crossbreds of Murrah, Nili-Ravi, Surti, and Jafarabadi are scantly available, encompassing the Indian border of Bangladesh due to border passage from India [5, 6]. However, buffalo selection was insufficient for milk production and productivity control in preceding decades. Thus, milk production is lower compared to selected buffalo populations in some Asian countries .
Buffalo milk introduces more research interest and investment, owing largely to its handsome nutrient contents . It can be used to manufacture a wide variety of dairy products like cow milk . From time immemorial, it has long been valued for its privileged chemical composition, making it suitable for producing many traditional and industrial dairy products . The advantageous comparison between buffalo milk and cow milk is not only regarding the attributes of physicochemical, compositional, and sensory but also its nutritional and health aspects . Buffalo milk proteins are regarded as complete proteins with high biological value, containing nearly all the essential amino acids required by the human body . Besides, amino acids perform significant physiological roles such as neurotransmission by aminobutyric acid (GABA) alongside protein synthesis . Moreover, the sensorial quality of milk is largely influenced by amino acids, and it was reported that glutamic acid is responsible for the umami taste in cheese .
Furthermore, amino acid profiles correlate to milk’s technological and nutritional qualities and are very important for the dairy industry and animal feeding and breeding strategies. Consequently, a more detailed overview of milk composition is needed to set a standard on technological properties for milk processing, especially amino acid profiles. However, the dairy industry faces challenges regarding breeding and nutritional strategy to produce the most favourable quality milk for diverse purposes. Therefore, detailed information on buffalo milk composition, particularly amino acid profile, is essential. Recently, Zhou et al.  compared milk protein, fat, lactose, total solids, and amino acid profiles on different buffalo breeds. Ren et al.  also compared milk protein, amino acid, and fatty acid profiles among two crossbreds of riverine buffalo viz. Murrah and Nili-Ravi and their crossbreds with local swamp buffalo. Besides, Rafiq et al.  correlated the AA profiles of buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel milk.
However, considerable knowledge of raw milk components and amino acid profiles of buffalo milk at the crossbred level is very scarce. Therefore, analysis of raw milk components and AA characterization of buffalo milk can contribute innovative information about milk composition and could be a valuable resource for the milk producers and processors to produce novel health-promoting dairy products for the consumers and purposefully selective breeding practices. Thus, the target of the current study was to ascertain the buffalo milk components and the milk AA profile of crossbred buffaloes.