Background: Various socio-demographic factors have been introduced as determinants of low sexual desire (LSD), but whether these variables can also contribute to hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) remains uncertain. In this study, we sought to identify the socio-demographic determinants of LSD and HSDD in Iranian women of reproductive age. Methods: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study of 1000 Iranian women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who met the inclusion criteria. The participants were chosen using the systematic random sampling method from all the healthcare centers in Sari, Iran. LSD was defined as a score no higher than 33 on the Sexual Interest and Desire Inventory-Female (SIDI-F), sexually-related personal distress was considered as a score of at least 11.0 on the Female Sexual Distress Scale–Revised (FSDS-R), and HSDD was determined based on the sum of these scores. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the socio-demographic characteristics, while for analyzing grouped variables, Chi-squared test was run. Multivariate logistic regression test was also employed to adjust the effect of confounding variables. Results: The mean score of sexual interest/desire among women was 30.6±10.5. After adjusting for the effect of confounding variables (socio-demographic variables such as age, age at first intercourse, level of education, etc.), logistic regression showed that age at first intercourse, length of marriage, and the level of satisfaction with income were significantly associated with both LSD and HSDD (P<0.01). In addition, advancing age (P<0.001) and body mass index (P<0.01) were predictors of LSD alone. Conclusion: Some socio-demographic factors could predict LSD in women, while they were not associated with HSDD. In other words, some factors associated with LSD do not instigate personal distress, which is one of the criteria necessary for the diagnosis of HSDD.