STUDY AREA: NAMAKKAL DISTRICT
Namakkal district is known as Transport City or Egg City and is located in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu (N; 11.36, 78.30 East). (Fig. 1) and functioned autonomously after being split from the Salem district with Namakkal town on January 1, 1997. The area is split into two income streams., Namakkal and Tiruchengode, and seven taluks, namely Namakkal, Tiruchengode, Kumarapalayam, Rasipuram, Paramathi Velur, Kolli Hills, and Sendamangalam. Namakkal district was limited to the north by Salem district, to the south by Karur district, to the east by Perambalur, Tiruchirappalli District, and to the west by Erode a region. This district is located in the North Western Agroclimatic Zone. On the east are the taluks of Rasipuram, Attur, and Namakkal, while on the west are the taluks of Salem, Omalur, and Mettur.Tiruchengode taluk is the only one in the Western Agro-climatic zone. Aside from the aforementioned two zones, Kolli and a few isolated hills and ridges strewn over Namakkal, Sendamangalam, Rasipuram, and Tiruchengode, coupled with valleys and undulating hills, make up the locality's distinctive terrain. A total of 34,29,671 hectares are distributed among four taluks: Namakkal, Paramathi, Tiruchengode, and Rasipuram. Namakkal, the district headquarters, has the most comprehensive coverage (1, 767, 75 square kilometres). The Namakkal District covers 3,363 square kilometres and has a population of 14.96 lakhs.Namakkal District has a good forest area and receives moderate precipitation. The total forest area in this region is 512.5 square kilometres, accounting for about 15% of the geographical area under the supervision of the District Forest Officer. The district's climate is hot and dry during the summer (March to May), and chilly and foggy during the winter (November to February). The annual rainfall is around 900 mm, and the temperature fluctuates from 18'C to 40'C. The Namakkal district had grown paddy, sorghum, groundnut, green gramme, black gramme, maize, cotton, and sugarcane.
Trichy area is sited in the central region of Tamil Nadu at latitude 11o 20' N and longitude 78o 10' E, flanked by Perambalur district is located to the north, Pudukkotai district is located to the south, Karur and Dindigul regions are set to the west, and Thanjavur district is located to the east.. The district's overall slope is towards the east. Pachamalai Hill, located in Sengattupatti Rain Forest, is an important isolated hill with a summit of up to 1015m. Ponmalai, Srirangam, Thuraiyur, and Manapparai are the four municipalities that make up this district. Trichy is the only Municipal Corporation that simultaneously serves as the District's headquarters.Trichy district is divided into eight taluks, namely Thottiyam M. Thuraiyur, Lalgudi, Musri, Trichy Allur, Manapparai and Srirangam all have14 blocks, 408 Village Panchayats, and 1590 villages. The Cauvery delta begins 16 kilometres west of the city and is one among Tamil Nadu's river systems. The Ayyar river basin encompasses the taluks of Musiri and Thuraiyur and has an aerial size of 1,167 square kilometres. Cool seasons are December through February, followed by summer period from March through May, the high winds from June through August, and rainy months from September through November. In general, the region has a lengthy period of hot weather followed by a brief period of rain. During the winter months, the maximum temperature was 37.7° C and the lowest temperature was 18.9° C. Rainfall ranged between 778 and 821mm. The majority of the rain fell during the Northeast Monsoon season, which lasted from October to December. The southwest monsoon began in June and continued in full force until the end of August. The Trichy taluk has the most population, accounting for 45 percent of the total. The Trichy district has a total land area of 4, 40,383 hectares. Almost 26% of the areas were classed as fallow fields, while 6% were classified as forest covered. The district had 14,190 hectares of tropical dry deciduous woods with elevations over 350 metres MSL in the Reserve Forests of Thuraiyur, Manapparai, and Veeramalai slope region. The tropical thorn woods had an area of 13,055 hectares and were found in the Manapparai and Thuraiyur taluks.
In 1910, the Karur Taluk was amalgamated with the Tiruchirappalli district. The autonomous Karur district was founded on September 30, 1995, by severing the Tiruchirappalli district, and it is flanked by Namakkal district borders on the north, Dindigul district borders on the south, Tiruchirapalli district borders on the east, and Erode district borders on the west. Karur district is sited between latitudes 10°37' N and 11°12' N and longitudes 77°46' E and 78°15' E. The entire forest area in the Karur District is 6187 Hectares. Karur has an elevation of 101 metres on average (331 feet). The town areas include 25% of the overall population. Cyclonic storms from the Bay of Bengal cause precipitation. Rainfall is most common in the Southwest and least often in the Northeast monsoons. The Southwest monsoon rains are erratic, and summer rains are modest. Karur is situated on the Amaravathi River's banks. The area is nearly flat, with little significant biological development. The temperature ranges from 39 degrees Celsius (102 degrees Fahrenheit) to 17 degrees Celsius (63 degrees Fahrenheit). Because Karur is in a rainshadow, the Southwest monsoon, which begins in June and lasts until August, provides little rain.The majority of the rain falls during the The summertime (late April and May) are followed by the North-East monsoon, which arrives in October to December.The average temperature of Karur is 28.7°C, and the annual rainfall is 590–600 mm. March is the driest month, with only 8 mm of rain. The most October sees a mean of 166 mm of precipitation. Except for the Rengamalai hills in the far south of Karur Taluk, the district's topography is mostly flat. Tipasamymalai and Vellimalai hills are located in Kulithalai Taluk. The Cauvery River flows on the northern and eastern limits.
Software (Mapitute Version 2020) was used to make Landsat satellite pictures, and they were gathered terms of quality and visibility (cloud cover 20% less) on 22/12/2020, and 2012 Vavteq India has been used for source image. The map based proportion is one to one million, three hundred thousand, nine hundred thousand (Fig. 1a and.1.b).
From June 2019 to April 2020, wetland surveys and questionnaire inquiries were in the community inside one one-kilometer radius of each water body.
We consider that the Temporary wetlands are dried out completely during the summer season (discover by field visit and with the questionnaire survey), an area less than 8 ha, and also included dryness duration per year. Wetlands are defined and classified differently in different countries, owing to their diverse variety of forms, sizes, and dispersion but followed Ramsar classification. There are many definitions of wetlands like water presence at the ground's edge or in the root zone during rainy season or distinct (hydric) soil circumstances distinct from non-wetland areas next to wetland areas and plants suited to continually or intermittently wet seasons (Mitsch and Gosselink, 2007).
Water quality analysis
Collected water samples from all wetland and stored in polythene bottles and then analyzed in the laboratory by using APHA method(APHA, 1985).
HUMAN DISTRUBANCE SCORE
A number of methodologies (interviews, ecosystem services (ES), human disturbance (HD), and physical parameters) were used to calculate the wetland's ecological and biological state. Wetlands are further classified as having a low, medium, or high impact on human disturbance. Water quality is concerned with the physical characteristics of water and the ecological state of wetlands. The Human disturbance score (HDS) protocol approach was used to assess the level of human disturbance to the wetlands (Gernes and Helgen, 2002). Using relevant information with the first cluster interview sessions, benefits produced in each wetland or the ecological services (ES) were secured and tested.
A field survey was carried out to investigate the ground impact of wetlands. Ecosystem Services, and the physical state of the wetlands. The collected data included several quantitative criteria to calculate the human perturbation element.
Factor 1: Critical zone-Disturbance within 50 metres of the wetlands − 0–18 points
Factor 2: Buffer Zone-Disturbance within 500 metres of the wetlands' margin- 0–18 points
Factor 3: Habitat Alteration-Disturbance within 50 metres of the wetlands' edge- 0–18 points
Factor 4: Hydrological Change-Disturbance within 50 metres of the margin of wetlands-0-21 points
Factor 5: Pollution of Chemical disruption within 50 metres of the margin of wetlands-0-21 points
Factor 6: The presence or absence of fish yields a score of 0–4 points.
The standard enumeration method was used to collect information on wetland types, hydrological conditions, land use patterns, ecological state, and habitat evaluation. Finally, each component was rated and classified (ranked) into one of four categories ranging from best to worst, as previously indicated. Each study wetland's human disturbance gradient score (HDS) was calculated by adding all scored values from each element to a total of 100 percent. According to (Gernes and Helgen, 2002), if the category range of a specific wetland's HDS score falls within 0–33, 33–67, and 67–100. It can be categorised as least impacted, somewhat influenced, and most or strongly impacted. Respondents were asked to assign a value to the ES stated for each wetland based on relative relevance, namely socioeconomic variables, wetland importance, and management elements.
WETLAND ECOSYSTEM SERVICE
Wetland provisioning services (WPS), wetland regulatory services (WRS), cultural services (CS), and supporting services (SS) are the ES generated from wetlands (SS). ES was collected from native peoples using questionary survey procedures and field survey observations. A minimum of five household surveys (HHS) were randomly selected from each wetland's surrounding region. This research had 302 participants in all. A questionnaire with twenty questions divided into four sections: 1) The socioeconomic factors were household size, respondent age, respondent level of formal education, and gender. 2) The questionnaire consisted of a list of wetlands-derived provisioning ESS. 3) Attitudes toward wetland protection. 4) Finally, a main source of revenue from households near wetlands. The questionnaire was pre-tested before being delivered in person to 302 respondents. Initial, fast assessment of the wetland survey conducted in two villages that were not included in the sample. The interviewers permitted pre-testing to obtain expertise with the questionnaire and provided an opportunity to implement and analyse the approach. The focus was on determining how defendants interpreted our inquiries and identifying any difficulties encountered in delivering replies. Variations were planned, researched, and incorporated into our final survey. Sum of 302 reliant on wetlands families were polled within those communities using the structured questionnaire. Attempt to cover all of the researcher's questions and have the most senior accessible person in the home survey answer them. The majority of responders were between the ages of 48 and 61, with 57 percent being female and 50 percent being male. The study relies on the ecosystem services that were consumed, people's dependence on them, shift drivers, and their consequences on ecosystem values.
Focus Group Discussion (FGDs)
During the focus group talks, the list of ES collected the results of the household survey was verified. During the survey period, Five public focus group discussions (FGD) were hosted in the villages with 5–10 individuals on median at every cluster. Members of the focus groups were chosen depending on their means of subsistence and reliance on the wetland. To prevent some of the recognised issues with focus debate clusters, we restricted group sizes to 5–10 persons and rated the listed ES throughout group conversations.
Key Informant Interviews
Before the survey, representatives from government agencies, non-governmental organisations, research institutes, and researchers were contacted for a list of the wetland's ecological services. During the interviews, the major questions concentrated on income-generating tactics and the causes of alteration in the wetland ecosystem. During the study, 15 delegates from various organisations were engaged, as key informants to assist us comprehend the arrays of variation and the causes for them. The crucial informants were chosen based on their understanding of wetland resources as well as their reliance on and engagement in wetland management.
2.3. Data Analysis
The statistical data were assessed to use regularity table and the Statistical Set (SPSS 25th Edition) for Social Sciences computer software tool, and the Shannon index approach was used to quantify avian diversity. Assess the dependency of a local population and the consequences of various influences on the wetland environment. Based on the study topics, the qualitative information from interviews was first classified and grouped into topics.; related coded themes were then grouped. The rating of ecological services was carried by utilising participative tools. Participants in focus group talks requested that essential ecosystems available from wetlands be identified. Following the listing of key ecosystem services, Scale of 1 to 10, participants rated the designated ecosystem services. (1 is the least preferred, and 10 is the most preferred).The overall ranking was calculated by dividing the total points for each ecological service by the digit of responders. Equally, the reasons of Qualitative approach were used to expose ecosystem transition (focus group talks) as well as household surveys.