This paper proposes a scattering area model based on the spatial layout and a joint clustering algorithm for processing multipath parameters extracted from the model. First of all, we construct a scatter area model based on the spatial layout of obstacles near the base station and then collect the multipath signals needed for positioning and extract parameters. Second, we use the joint clustering algorithm improved by k-means clustering and mean shift clustering algorithm to process the parameters and extract useful information. Third, the processed information is combined with the spatial layout information of the scattering area model to construct equations, and then the solving problem of equations is converted into a least-squares optimization problem. Finally, the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm is used to solve the optimal solution and estimate the mobile target position. The simulation results show that the positioning algorithm in this paper can use a single base station to locate the target in an outdoor Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environment, and the accuracy is improved compared with the traditional positioning algorithm.