OPCABG is one of the main measures for the treatment of CHD. Postoperative hemorrhage or tamponade is a serious surgical complication. In this study, the mortality rate of patients undergone re-exploration for bleeding or tamponade was as high as 27.6%. The reasons are not only related to early postoperative anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy, but also related to surgical techniques, so careful hemostasis is the most effective measure to reduce the risk of bleeding and tamponade. Re-exploration often brings secondary injury to patients, even life-threatening. Therefore, it is of great significance to analyze the high risk factors of death in those patients, which can provide necessary guidance for clinical treatment.
In this study, there were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or cerebral infarction, but BMI between the two groups. The study showed that high BMI was a significant independent predictor for adverse outcomes and prolonged hospitalization after CABG . It might affect the heart through a variety of risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, glucose intolerance, inflammatory markers, obstructive sleep apnea/hypoventilation, the prethrombotic state and other unknown mechanisms . The possible direct effect of high BMI on the heart was the heavy cardiac load, which impact the mortality of patients after reoperation.
The level of myocardial enzymes is correlated with the severity and the timing of myocardial infarction. Increased preoperative myocardial enzyme is an independent risk factor for postoperative cardiac death [8, 9]. In this study, there was no difference in the time from myocardial infarction to operation between the two groups. But the higher level of cTnT is associated with higher mortality rate. Furthermore, the lower preoperative EFis related to the higher mortality. Wrobel et al. found that the mature surgical risk scores have identified EF as a powerful predictor of perioperative mortality . IABP can effectively provide life support to patients, especially for CHD patients. However, the use of IABP also indicates the patients with severe heart failure. Our study showed that the utilization rate of IABP was higher in the death group.
Renal injury is a common yet potentially serious complication after cardiac surgery and its pathophysiology is complex and multifactorial, which includes several factors such as exogenous and endogenous toxins, metabolic factors, ischemia-reperfusion injury, neurohormonal activation, embolization, hemodynamic alterations, along with inflammation and oxidative stress . On the one hand, due to worse cardiac function or hypotension during the reoperation, the kidneys may suffer from ischemic damage. On the other hand, renal insufficiency may affect the regulation of water, salt, electrolytes and metabolites decreases, especially the function of heart, forming a vicious circle. We found that patients with renal insufficiency had higher mortality and higher perioperative utilization rate of CRRT.
Respiratory failure after cardiac surgery increases hospital mortality, with a probability of about 5-20% . Filsoufi et al. have shown that respiratory failure together with a significant co-disease increases hospital mortality . Our results show that high PCO2 was associated with mortality. Reoperation often requires secondary intubation, so the risk of lung infection is significantly higher. We found that septic shock caused by pulmonary infection accounted for 4/16 (25%) of all deaths after reoperation. Therefore, for patients after reoperation, respiratory tract care should be strengthened, bacterial culture should be carried out in time, and antibiotics should be used timely and reasonably.
Lactic acid is a marker of anaerobic metabolism, indicating the imbalance between tissue oxygen supply and consumption. Lactic acid is also a sensitive index for the evaluation of microcirculatory disorders . Kristensen et al. in a study of 16,376 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, found that lactic acid is an independent risk factor for early cardiac death after cardiac surgery . We found there was a statistical difference in lactic acid between the survival group and the death group before and after re-exploration. Cardiac tamponade and re-exploration will decrease the perfusion of various organs and tissues, which induce the increase of lactic acid. Hyperlactataemia can lead to myocardial intracellular acidosis, metabolic disorder, and then cause the myocardial cell structure and dysfunction, resulting in a poor prognosis . Therefore, we should pay attention to patient's conditions evenslight increase of lactic acid after cardiac surgery, especially after re-exploration.
Blood product transfusion is not only an independent predictor of bleeding-related re-exploration , but also associated with postoperative mortality . The results of this study indicate that platelet transfusion is associated with the mortality of re-exploration for bleeding or tamponade after isolate OPCABG, but not with plasma, red blood cells, or cryoprecipitate. Platelet transfusion is associated with uncontrollable bleeding, which predicts poor prognosis. Platelets transfusion may enhance the risk of perioperative myocardial infarction and affect the short-term patency rate of grafts. It suggests that we should be cautious in the use of platelets after operation.
Our results show that the longer reoperation time is associated with the higher mortality. We found it was difficult to clear blood clots and find bleeding points during reoperation. It may induce hypotension and vital organs ischemic damage.
Because the study is a case-control study from a single center, the limitations of the present study includes unavoidable confounding factors and the risk of selection bias. In addition, the small sample size limits the applicability and the use of statistical approaches of this study.