The existence of multi-drug resistance organisms, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), is on the rise and is becoming a severe problem. Knowledge of the prevalence and antibiogram profile of such isolates is essential to develop an appropriate treatment methodology. This study aimed to study the prevalence of Gram-negative isolates exhibiting ESBL at a tertiary care hospital and study their antibiogram profile.
A cross-sectional study was conducted at Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal, from June 2018 to November 2018. A total of 770 clinical samples were collected and identified by using the conventional biochemical tests following the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. The screening test for ESBL producers was performed as recommended by the CLSI and the confirmatory test was performed phenotypically using the E-test.
Out of 92 isolates, 84 (91.3%) isolates were multidrug resistant, and 47 (51.1%) isolates were found to be potential ESBL producers. Of these, 16 isolates were confirmed ESBL producers by the E-test. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the predominant isolates and were also the major ESBL producers. Besides polymyxin B (100% sensitive), meropenem and imipenem showed high efficacy against the ESBL producers.
Multidrug resistance was very high, however, ESBL production was low. Polymyxin B and carbapenems are the choice of drugs against ESBL producers but should be used only as the last line drugs.