The advanced water treatment taken by organic micro-pollution or microbiological pollution water resource has been a hot issue of public concern. In this article, a novel quaternary ammonium salt functionalized β-cyclodextrin polyurethane (QAS-β-CDPU) was successfully constructed for above-mentioned pollutants removal. By adjusting the proportion of the chlorine-containing monomers, we studied the effect of different quaternization degree (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%) on solvent resistance and thermal stability. Staphylococcus aureus are recognized as significant human bacterial pathogens, which were used as model bacteria to investigate the antibacterial activity by contact-killing tests. Methylene blue (MB) served as a toxic organic model to quantify the dye wastewater remediation efficiency. Research shows that the reaction of β-cyclodextrin and diisocyanate can form a cyclodextrin-based carbamate network structure. Since both the cyclodextrin cavity and the carbamate network may remove the dye, the obtained polymer has a double advantage. Besides, the presence of quaternary ammonium groups enables QAS-β-CDPU to possess good bactericidal properties. When the quaternization degree is 60%, sterilization rate of QAS-β-CDPU comes to 97.3%. On basis of this simple, green and economical synthetic route, QAS-β-CDPU has the potential to become an ideal multifunctional material in water purification.