I have been conducting a study of postseismic deformation following the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake using ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 acquired till 2018. I apply ionospheric correction to interferograms of ALOS-2/PALSAR-2. L-band SAR gives us high coherence enough to reveal surface deformation even in vegetated or mountainous area for pairs of images acquired more than 2 years.
Postseismic deformation following the Kumamoto earthquake exceeds 10 cm during two years at some spots in and around Kumamoto city and Aso caldera. Westward motion of ~6 cm/yr was dominant on the southeast side of the Hinagu fault, while westward shift was detected on both side of the Futagawa fault. The area of latter deformation seems to have correlation with distribution of pyroclastic flow deposits. Significant uplift was found around the eastern Futagawa fault and on the southwestern frank of Aso caldera, whose rate reaches 4 cm/yr. There are sharp changes across several coseismic surface ruptures such as Futagawa, Hinagu, and Idenokuchi faults. Rapid subsidence between Futagawa and Idenokuchi faults also found. It is confirmed that local subsidence continued along the Suizenji fault, which newly appeared during the mainshock in Kumamoto City. Subsidence with westward shift of up to 4 cm/yr was also found in Aso caldera.
Time constant of postseismic decay ranges from 1 month to 600 days at selected points, but that postseismic deformation during the first epochs or two are dominant at point in the Kumamoto Plain. This result suggests multiple source of deformation.
Westward motion around the Hinagu fault may be explained with right lateral afterslip on the shallow part of this fault. Subsidence along the Suizenji fault can be attributed to normal faulting on dipping westward. Deformation around the Hinagu and Idenokuchi faults cannot be explained with right-lateral afterslip of Futagawa fault, which requires other sources. Deformation in northern part of Aso caldera might be the result of right lateral afterslip on a possible buried fault.