Background Since December 2019, the outbreak of COVID-19 caused a large number of hospital admissions in China. Many patients with COVID-19 have symptoms of acute respiratory distress syndrome, even are in danger of death. This is the first study to evaluate dynamic changes of D-Dimer and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio (NLR) as a prognostic utility in patients with COVID-19 for clinical use.
Methods In a retrospective study, we collected data from 349 hospitalized patients who diagnosed as the infection of the COVID-19 in Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital. We used ROC curves and Cox regression analysis to explore critical value (optimal cut-off point associated with Youden index) and prognostic role of dynamic changes of D-Dimer and NLR.
Results 349 participants were enrolled in this study and the mortality rate of the patients with laboratory diagnosed COVID-19 was 14.9%. The initial and peak value of D-Dimer and NLR in deceased patients were higher statistically compared with survivors (P<0.001). There was a more significant upward trend of D-Dimer and NLR during hospitalization in the deceased patients, initial D-Dimer and NLR were lower than the peak tests (MD) -25.23, 95% CI: -31.81- -18.64, P <0.001; (MD) -43.73, 95% CI:-59.28- -31.17, P <0.001. The test showed a stronger correlation between hospitalization days, PCT and peak D-Dimer than initial D-Dimer. The areas under the ROC curves of peak D-Dimer and peak NLR tests were higher than the initial tests (0.94(95%CI: 0.90-0.98) vs. 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73-0.87); 0.93 (95%CI:0.90-0.96) vs. 0.86 (95%CI:0.82-0.91). The critical value of initial D-Dimer, peak D-Dimer, initial NLR and peak NLR was 0.73 mg/L, 3.78 mg/L,7.13 and 14.31 respectively. 35 (10.03%) patients were intubated. In the intubated patients, initial and peak D-Dimer and NLR were much higher than non-intubated patients (P<0.001). The critical value of initial D-Dimer, peak D-Dimer, initial NLR and peak NLR in prognosticate of intubation was 0.73 mg/L, 12.75 mg/L,7.28 and 27.55. The multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that age (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.07, P=0.01), the peak D-Dimer (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.04, P<0.001) were prognostic factors for COVID-19 patients’death.
Conclusions To dynamically observe the ratio of D-Dimer and NLR was more valuable during the prognosis of COVID-19. The rising trend in D-Dimer and NLR, or the test results higher than the critical values may indicate a risk of death for participants with COVID-19.