We declare no competing interests. This study was approved by the ethics committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University. Because this is a retrospective study,the ethical committee approved the study and waived the informed consent requirement. We sincerely thank all the hospital for providing data, on behalf of China Medical Treatment Expert Group for COVID–19. We thank Meng Shu in Janssen Research and Development, Qiang Lin and Wei Shen in Yitu Technology for the great support in processing the data. This study is supported by the China National Science Foundation (grant no 81871893) and the Key Project of Guangzhou Scientific Research Project (grant no 201804020030).
H. J. and L. W. conceived of and designed the study. L. W., L. C. and L. J. developed the methodology. H. J., L. W., L. C., L. J., X. S., Z. R., C. B., O. L., C. Z., H. Q., X. Z. and L. J. acquired the data. L. W., L. C., L. J., and X. S. analyzed and interpreted the data. L. W., L. C., L. J. and X. S. wrote the manuscript.