With water resources becoming scarcer and a growing demand for increased food supplies, there is an urgent need to maximize the efficiency of irrigation systems. We aimed to find a suitable border length to reduce the quantity of irrigation water through a traditional border irrigation system and, thus, alleviate groundwater depletion in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (3HP). A 2-year experiment (2017–2019) was conducted in 3HP, which three border lengths were tested: 15 m (L15), 25 m (L25), and 35 m (L35); supplementary irrigation was implemented during jointing and anthesis, inflow cutoff was set at 90%, and set a control treatment without irrigation (CK). The results showed that L25 significantly improved soil water distribution after irrigation, and increased soil water consumption compared with L15 and L35. The the dry matter accumulation post-anthesis was also higher in L25 than in the other treatments, as well as the WUE. The correlation analysis of soil water content after irrigation with yield confirmed that L25 was more conducive to high grain yield. Hence, under these test conditions, the irrigation field treatments with a border length of 25 m were considered the most efficient, given that these allow the reduction of the amount of water necessary for irrigation without compromising grain yield of winter wheat.