Diabetic neuropathy is complication of diabetes which is believed to be caused by improper Ca2+ (calcium) signaling and activation of apoptotic process of neuron of dorsal root ganglia. Amlodipine, antagonist Ca2+, has been already known to has neuroprotective effect in vitro or in vivo. This research investigates the effect of amlodipine in cytosolic calcium level and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y human neural cell line after exposure of chronic hyperglycemia. The study design was an experimental study using human neuronal cell line SH-SY5Y, exposed by chronic hyperglycemia for 6 days with concentration of glucose 25 µM (normoglycemia) and 50 µM (hyperglycemia), then was added amlodipine 2 µM for 30 minutes.
In this study, hyperglycemia increased calcium concentration and caspase-3 compared with normoglycemia (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001 respectively). There was significant difference (p = 0.015) between calcium concentration in hyperglycemia induced cell line after given amlodipine 2 µM compared without amlodipine. There was significant difference (p = 0.027) between caspase 3 level in hyperglycemia induced cell line after given amlodipine 2 µM and without amlodipine. Administration of amlodipine significantly reduced cytosolic calcium and caspase-3 level in hyperglycemia induced SH-SY5Y human neural cell lines.