We performed a comprehensive multi-omics analysis of 756 trace-tumor-samples from 124 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma phase (ESCC) patients, covering 9 histopathological stages in 3 phases as nontumor phase (NT phase), intraepithelial neoplasia phase (IEN phase), and ESCC phase. Proteogenomics elucidated the stage-specific molecular characterization and defined the cancer-driving waves along with the mutation accumulation in EC progression. The integrated multi-omics uncovered the chromosome 3q gain was the key event in the transmit from the NT to IEN phase, disclosed the top mutation of TP53 enhanced cell cycle and DNA replication in the IEN phase, and revealed the ESCC phase mutations of AKAP9 and MCAF1 elevated glycolysis and Wnt signaling, respectively. Furthermore, the trajectory analysis identified 6 major tracks related to different clinical features during ESCC progression. Growingly enhanced and hyperphosphorylated phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1, S203) was detected and considered as a drug target in ESCC progression. Collectively, this study provides insight into the understanding of ESCC molecular mechanism and a valuable resource for the development of therapeutic targets.