Pancreatic lipase (a key enzyme in the small intestine) is able to hydrolyze and absorb triglyceride. Thus, one of the approaches to prevent obesity and prevention of triglyceride absorption is inhibition r decreasing lipase activity . The excessive fat in diet would be stored in the body in the form of fat in adipose tissue [20–22]. Therefore, lipase inhibition is one of the most widely studied mechanisms used to limit triacylglycerol absorption, leading to a decrease in caloric yield and weight loss [3, 23]. Moreover, inhibition of lipase determines the potential efficacy of natural products as anti-obesity agents and beneficial for the regulation of metabolic disorders [4, 24–26]. The effect of Ephedra alata extract on porcine pancreatic lipase activity is shown in Table 1. The IC50 value of Ethyl acetate, water and methanol extracts were.8, 1.6 and 1.2 mg/ml respectively; while this value for atorvastatin (an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase used as an anti-hyperlipidemic agent) was 0.97 mg/ml. In HFFD-rats, this study showed that administration of MEAE decreased the activity of lipase in intestine, pancreas and serum back by 53, 40 and 53% respectively. This inhibition in the lipase activity leads to a significant decrease in TC and LDL-C; and increase in HDL-C in HFFD-rats treated with MEAE as compared to untreated rats and leading to the decreased of body weight as anti-obesity activity. One of the probable reasons for it is the higher content of polyphenolic and flavonoid compounds in methanol fraction of Ephedra alata. In fact, Ziani et al  have reported that The hydro-methanol crude extract contained the maximum number of phenolic compounds (22 compounds among the 24 compounds detected) which the most concentrated was quinic acid Apigenin-6,8-C-dihexoside, Erydictiol-O-hexoside, Erydictiol-O-hexoside, Apigenin-8-C-glucoside, Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, Rosmarinic acid hexoside. Amakura et al.28  reported on the main individual polyphenols in EA (cinnamic acid, syringin, catechin, epicatechin, symplocoside, pollenitin B, herbacetin 7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside 7-O-glucoside, and isovitexin 2-O-rhamnoside).
Obesity has been proven to lead to many complications including cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers, and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes one of the most challenging chronic disorder of the 21st century that alters carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolisms. It is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, caused abnormal insulin secretion or insulin action or both . In fact, The rate of carbohydrate and lipid digestion can influence or adversely affect postprandial glycaemia, weight gain, and obesity, particularly in people at risk of T2D. Hence, limiting carbohydrate and lipid digestion is considered a therapeutic approach to control hyperglycemia, weight gain, and obesity. Results of this study showed that Ethyl acetate, water and methanol extracts of Ephedra alata extracts inhibited α-amylase activity with IC50 0.28, 1.5 and 1.1 mg/ml respectively. In HFFD-rats administration of MEAE significantly decreased the α-amylase activity in intestine, pancreas and serum; and consequently decrease in blood glucose level of 35% as compared to untreated HFFD-rats. The potent inhibitory effect of the α-amylase may be influenced by the abundance of phenolic compounds in MEAE. It has been reported in the literature that Ephedra alata alcohol extract contain bioactive principle that may be useful in the management or prevention of diabetic complications [29, 30]. In fact, The LC-DAD-ESI/MSn profile of E. alata was characterized by the presence of various phenolic compounds, all belonging to flavonoids class, namely five isoflavones the diazein, the Epicatechin, the rutin as well as the quercitin and flavones; and also, the presence of the myricetin derivatives, such as myricetin 3-rhamnoside . These compounds have been reported to be useful in the treatment of various diseases. Herein, a very high amount of polyphenols and flavonoids in that have gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatoire, analgesic and anti-diabetic effects....[32–36].
Fever (pyrexia) is defined as a complicated physiologic response caused by infection or aseptic stimuli. The body temperature elevation occurs when PGE2 accumulate in the hypothalamus pre-optic region. The neurons firing rate in the hypothalamus control thermoregulation and is usually altered by increased synthesis of PGE2. Research has reported that most antipyretic drugs exert their action by inhibiting cyclooxygenase enzymatic activity and consequently reducing PGE2 levels within the hypothalamic region . This study was carried out to evaluate the antipyretic effects of MEAE in mice. The This findings from the present study were in agreement with other studies on antipyretic potential medicinal plants in animal models. Previous studies have reported that Ephedra plants contents alkaloids including ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and ephedroxane, had potent anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. This anti-inflammatory effect was likely due to the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis. Another study showed that administration of methanol extract of Ephedra alata to rats could suppress the INFγ level, one of the inflammatory cytokine, plays an important role in the activation of innate and adaptive immune system signaling pathways in the tumor context .
In mice, acetic acid contributes to the release of arachidonic acids from the phospholipid membrane and synthesize PG via the cyclo-oxygenase. Acute inflammation induced by acetic acid is directly related to increased levels of prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin (PGF2α), consequently increase of bradykinin, serotonin, and histamine secretion, which are involved for the stimulation of the central nociceptive neurons. Any substance causing inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing may have anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects . This study was carried out to evaluate the antipyretic effects of MEAE in mice. This study showed that MEAE to acetic-acid treated rats caused a significant diminution effect of cramp in a dose-dependent manner as compared to control. The findings from the present study were in agreement with other studies on analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions of Ephedra alata in animal models. Similar work by Hyuga et al.  demonstrated analgesic effects of bioactives drugs contents in Ephedra methanolic extract ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and ephedroxane, in acetic acid-induced pain. A study by Hanawa et al.  demonstrated that herbacetin, a component of Ephedra Herb, suppressed the formalin-induced pain. Ephedra Herb extract and EFE reduced paw-licking time in a dose-dependent manner during the second phase of the formalin test.