Cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i), combined with endocrine therapy (ET), have demonstrated higher antitumor activity than ET alone for the treatment of advanced estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer (BC). Some ER+ BC are de novo resistant to CDK4/6i and others develop acquired resistance. Therapies for tumors after progression are needed. Here, we demonstrate that p16 overexpression is associated with reduced antitumor activity of CDK4/6i in patient-derived xenografts (PDX; n=37) and ER+ BC cell lines, and reduced response of early/advanced ER+HER2- BC patients (n=49) to CDK4/6i. We also identified heterozygous RB1 loss as biomarker of acquired resistance and poor clinical outcome in ER+, CDK4/6i-treated BC PDX and patients. Combination of CDK4/6i ribociclib with PI3K inhibitor (PI3Ki) alpelisib showed antitumor activity in ER+ non-basal-like BC PDX, independently of PIK3CA or RB1 mutation (n=25). Our results offer new insights into predicting primary and acquired resistance to CDK4/6i and post-progression therapeutic strategies.