Alternative energy sources are needed to meet the energy needs of the rapidly increasing population and developing industry and to increase the efficiency of the systems. In internal combustion engines, biodiesel is used as an alternative fuel for both being an alternative energy source and having a better efficiency compared to diesel fuel. Efficiency loss in the engines is largely due to friction and wear between the piston ring (PR) and the cylinder liner (CL). Different lubrication regimes in engines have substantial effects on wear and friction. In the present study, the effects of diesel and biodiesel (chicken oil methyl ester, COME) fuels on friction and wear in different loads (40-60-80-100 N) and speeds (60-90-120-150 rpm) were examined using the Taguchi experimental design method. In addition, an artificial neural networks (ANNs) model is utilized for modeling the wear at the cylinder liner (CL) and the piston rings (PR) using different fuel types, speeds and loads. As a result of the study, biodiesel fuel has a lower friction coefficient and abrasion in all load and cycle intervals due to its high viscosity and lubrication properties compared to diesel fuel. Besides, the developed ANN model has good predictive capability for the wear at the CL and the PR according to perfect match between experimental and modeling results.