Tuberculosis (TB) is a cause of high morbidity and mortality across the world but more so in developing countries. A large proportion of patients with tuberculosis present with extra-pulmonary disease which is often misdiagnosed or under-diagnosed. In Southwest Nigeria, there are reports on tuberculosis but only a few focused on extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). This study was aimed to determine the burden of EPTB and its associated factors in a tertiary health care centre in Nigeria.
This was a cross-sectional retrospective study involving all the TB cases seen from 1st January 2015 and 31st December 2019. Relevant information was retrieved from the clinical records of the patients with the use of a well-structured proforma. Data obtained was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0.
Five hundred and nine subjects were involved with a mean age of 39.8±16.99 years. Three hundred and sixteen (62.1%) were males, 69 (13.6%) participants were HIV positive. Eighty-three (16.3%) had EPTB, of these 32 (38.6%) had spinal tuberculosis while 23 (27.7%) had pleural tuberculosis. Age, new cases of TB, and smear-negative TB were found to be significantly associated with the development of EPTB.
Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis is a common form of tuberculosis in our community, and the commonest presentation is spinal and pleural tuberculosis. There is a need for an improvement in diagnostic capacity for EPTB especially among the middle-aged and those presenting with TB for the first time. This will aid in the prompt detection and management of patients with EPTB.