Hundreds of neuroimaging studies show that mentalizing (i.e., theory of mind) recruits default mode network (DMN) regions with remarkable consistency. Nevertheless, the social-cognitive functions of individual DMN regions remain unclear, perhaps due to the limited spatiotemporal resolution of neuroimaging. We used electrocorticography (ECoG) to record neuronal population activity while 16 human subjects judged the psychological traits of themselves and others. Self- and other-mentalizing recruited near-identical neuronal populations in a common spatiotemporal sequence: activations were earliest in visual cortex, followed by temporoparietal DMN regions, and finally medial prefrontal cortex. Critically, regions with later activations showed greater functional specificity for mentalizing, greater self/other differentiation, and stronger associations with behavioral response times. Moreover, other-mentalizing evoked slower and lengthier activations than self-mentalizing across successive DMN regions, suggesting temporally extended demands on higher-level processes. Our results reveal a common neurocognitive pathway for self- and other-mentalizing that follows a hierarchy of functional specialization across DMN regions.