The present randomized controlled educational trial is a study conducted on 100 army-retired men in Shiraz city. The participants were selected by systematic, regular random sampling and the random number table (e.g., a list of the center members was compiled, and their number was divided by the number of the required sample.) We selected the primary outset using the NCSS PASS 15 software and obtained other individuals using the number computed by the previous formula. We estimated the sample size at 90 relying on Taghinezhad et al.’s study, entitled ‘The Effectiveness of Collaborative Assisting Intervention by Training Social Skills on Social Adjustment of Elderlies’ and considering the mean difference formula in trial studies. However, the sample size was estimated at 100 due to participant loss probability . In the case of subjects’ immigration, dissatisfaction, non-cooperation with the programs, absences above one session, and reoccupation, they were omitted from the study. The samples were randomly assigned into two equal groups of intervention and control by the NCSS PASS software. Those assigned to the intervention group took part in the educational sessions.
The data collection instruments were a researcher-made questionnaire about the demographic information, an aging perceptions scale, and the short-form Bell adjustment inventory. The demographic information included the names and surnames of individuals; if they were inclined, age, residence, ethnicity, marital status, the number and gender of children, education, and incomes. The aging perceptions questionnaire is a self-report tool measuring an individual’s evaluation of oldness and has two parts. The first involves 32 items, measuring four dimensions of beliefs about aging. The second part measures the experiences related to the health changes by 17 two-part questions. The short-form Bell Adjustment Questionnaire (BAI) is comprised of 32 questions; each is answered by either ‘Yes,’ ‘No,’ and ‘I do not know’ options. The first part of APQ is measured based on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). The second part, which is in the form of yes/no, is scored by either 0 or 1 point. The scoring spectrum of this questionnaire ranges from 1 to 194. The scoring of the short-form Bell Adjustment Inventory is according to the normalized table. In this test, only yes or no responses receive scores. Based on the normalized table, the selected option is scored 0 or 1. An individual’s adjustment score is obtained by the sum of points obtained from all questions. Barker et al. used the test-retest method and estimated the average reliability of the aging perceptions questionnaire at 0.76. Mir Emadi et al. (2017) calculated the Cronbach alpha coefficient for all questionnaire dimensions between 0.64 and 0.81. They obtained the test's reliability coefficient between 0.65 and 0.96 in a two-week time interval using the test-retest method. This research showed that the aging perceptions questionnaire enjoyed suitable validity and reliability. The reliability of the short-form Bell Adjustment inventory was calculated at 0.88, determined by the correlation between odd and even items and use of the Spearman-Brown predictor formula. This questionnaire was validated and standardized in Iran by Delavar for athlete stuntmen. The third questionnaire was perceived parental role designed by Vasalo et al. (2009). This instrument has 12 items scored by a 5-point Likert scale. The scoring spectrum is from 12 to 60. The validity of this instrument was estimated by Cronbach alpha at 0.91 and ICC of 0.89.
Before the intervention, the participants filled out the informed consent, demographic characteristics, aging perceptions, and adjustment questionnaires. After data analysis and discovery of individuals’ most-needed education in the area under investigation, the intervention started in the form of an educational course in six sessions once a week with 10 participants per session. The topics of the educational sessions were as follows: first session: mindfulness; second session: familiarity with the somatic changes in old ages; third session: familiarity with psychological changes in old ages; fourth session: health management and self-care; fifth session: attitudes towards old ages and the role of the elderly in the family and adult children; and sixth session: social relationships in the retirement period. Every session lasted 60 minutes.
The time of classes was adapted to the perspectives of the participants. In the sixth session, a psychologist was invited and asked to discuss the relationships between the subjects and their children and parents. The rest of the subjects was trained by educational power points. The training was specific to the experimental group, and the control group received no intervention. Power points, films, and educational clips, and pamphlets were employed in different sessions. The participants were given a workbook and asked to write down their practices during different days. Eight weeks after the intervention, the tests were repeated. The subjects filled out the informed consent and demographic information questionnaires, and the aging perceptions and adjustment questions were asked from the participants in the form of interviews. At the end of the sessions, the educational manual, including all trained topics, were rendered to the individuals for commemoration and accessibility. Eventually, some educational sessions were held for the control group, and the educational manual and pamphlets were delivered to them. The perspectives of several health education specialists were employed in the design of classes and implementation manner of the intervention.
Two weeks after the intervention, the individuals in both groups filled out the questionnaires. To observe ethical principles, we provided the control group with the content of the educational sessions in the form of pamphlets. All participants entered the study with their informed consent. The present study received an ethics code of 19522 and was conducted according to Helsinki declaration and CONSORT after adopting a license from the Ethics Committee of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (IR.SUMS.REC.1398.960). The data were analyzed by the SPSS 25 software, wherein the significance level was considered at 5%. To investigate the significance of the difference between the groups, we employed the independent T-test, and to develop the predictor model, we used multivariate regression analysis using the enter method.