Due to the high in situ stresses, dynamic disasters occurred frequently in the Huainan mining area, China. While our understanding of the in situ stresses in this area is still insufficient. In this study, the in situ stresses of 18 sections in two boreholes in the Xinji No. 1 coalfield were measured by using hydraulic fracturing method, and the distribution of in situ stresses in the Huainan mining area were investigated. The relationship between in situ stress and geological structure in the Huainan mining area were summarized and the limitation of fault friction strength on in situ stresses were discussed. The result showed that the maximum horizontal principal stress (σH) at Xinji No. 1 mine was 13.95–25.23 MPa, the minimum horizontal principal stress (σh) was 12.16–21.17 MPa. The average azimuth of the maximum horizontal principal stress was N83.61 °E. The statistical results showed that the in situ stresses in Huainan mining area were characterized by a strike-slip faulting regime. Both the horizontal and vertical principal stresses increased approximately linearly with the increase of burial depth. The direction of the maximum principal stress in the study area is closely related to the tectonic movement and the ratio of maximum principal stress to minimum principal stress was primarily limited by the friction strength of fault. The outcomes of this research can provide some reliable engineering parameters and benefit the roadway layout and support design in the Huainan mining area.