A new three dimensional nonlinear dynamic theoretical model is derived from fluid mechanics system. In this paper, From the quasi-geostrophic barotropic potential vorticity equation, we obtain a three dimensional dissipative Boussinesq equation by the reduced perturbation method, i.e.utt +e1uxx +e2(u2)xx + e3utxy + e4uxxxx + e5uxxyy = 0. It is emphasized that the new equation is different from the existing Boussinesq equations, which describe the three dimensional nonlinear Rossby waves in the atmosphere. Moreover, we explore the dispersion relation of the linear wave through the new equation. Using the trial function and auxiliary equation method, the two kinds of soliton solutions of the equation are obtained successfully. Finally, the formation mechanism of Rossby waves is discussed by multiple soliton solutions.