The current outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome associated with coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is pressing public health systems around the world, and large population testing is a key step to control this pandemic disease. Real-time reverse-transcription PCR (real-time RT-PCR) is the gold standard test for virus detection but the soaring demand for this test resulted in shortage of reagents and instruments, severely limiting its applicability to large-scale screening. To be used either as an alternative, or as a complement, to real-time RT-PCR testing, we developed a high-throughput targeted proteomics assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 proteins directly from clinical respiratory tract samples. Sample preparation was fully automated by using a modified magnetic particle-based proteomics approach implemented on a robotic liquid handler, enabling a fast processing of samples. The use of turbulent flow chromatography included four times multiplexed on-line sample cleanup and UPLC separation. MS/MS detection of three peptides from SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein and a 15N-labeled internal global standard was achieved within 2.5 min, enabling the analysis of more than 500 samples per day. The method was validated using 562 specimens previously analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and was able to detect over 83% of positive cases. No interference was found with samples from common respiratory viruses, including other coronaviruses (NL63, OC43, HKU1, and 229E). The strategy here presented has high sample stability and low cost and should be considered as an option to large population testing.