Background: Chloromethane (CH3Cl) is the most abundant chlorinated volatile organic compound in the atmosphere and contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion. CH3Cl has mainly natural sources such as emissions from vegetation. In particular, ferns have been recognized as strong emitters. Mitigation of CH3Cl to the atmosphere by methylotrophic bacteria, a global sink for this compound, is likely underestimated and remains poorly characterized. Results and Conclusions: We investigated chloromethane-degrading taxa associated with intact and living tree fern plants of the species Cyathea australis by stable isotope probing (SIP) with 13C-labelled CH3Cl combined with metagenomic DNA sequencing. Metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) related to Methylobacterium and Friedmanniella were identified as being involved in the degradation of CH3Cl in the phyllosphere, i.e., the aerial parts of the tree fern, while a MAG related to Sorangium was linked to CH3Cl degradation in the fern rhizosphere. The only known metabolic pathway for CH3Cl degradation, via a methyltransferase system including the gene cmuA, was not detected in metagenomes or MAGs identified by SIP. Hence, a yet uncharacterised methylotrophic cmuA-independent pathway likely drives CH3Cl degradation in the investigated tree ferns.