Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been widely used in autonomous driving and large-scale manufacturing. Although state-of-the-art scanning LiDAR can perform long-range three-dimensional imaging, the frame rate is limited by both round-trip delay and the beam steering speed, hindering the development of high-speed autonomous vehicles. For hundred-meter level ranging applications, a several-time speedup is highly desirable. Here, we uniquely combine fiber-based encoders with wavelength-division multiplexing devices to implement all-optical time-encoding on the illumination light. Using this method, parallel detection and fast inertia-free spectral scanning can be achieved simultaneously with single-pixel detection. As a result, the frame rate of a scanning LiDAR can be multiplied with scalability. We demonstrate a 4.4-fold speedup for a maximum 75-m detection range, compared with a time-of-flight-limited laser ranging system. This approach has the potential to improve the velocity of LiDAR-based autonomous vehicles to the regime of hundred kilometers per hour and open up a new paradigm for ultrafast-frame-rate LiDAR imaging.