- The author has confirmed that a statement listing potential conflicts of interest or lack thereof is included in the text.

The Dirac equation (DE) is one of the cornerstones of quantum physics. We prove in the present contribution that the notion of *internal degrees of freedom* of the electron represented by Dirac’s matrices is superfluous. One can write down a coordinate-free manifestly covariant *vector* equation by direct quantization of the 4-momentum vector with modulus *m*: *Pψ=mψ* (no slash!), the spinor ψ taking care of the different vector grades at the two sides of the equation. Electron spin and all the standard DEproperties *emerge* from this equation. In coordinate representation, the four orthonormal time-space frame vectors *X* µ appear instead of Dirac’s

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Posted 05 Apr, 2021

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Posted 05 Apr, 2021

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- The author has confirmed that a statement listing potential conflicts of interest or lack thereof is included in the text.

The Dirac equation (DE) is one of the cornerstones of quantum physics. We prove in the present contribution that the notion of *internal degrees of freedom* of the electron represented by Dirac’s matrices is superfluous. One can write down a coordinate-free manifestly covariant *vector* equation by direct quantization of the 4-momentum vector with modulus *m*: *Pψ=mψ* (no slash!), the spinor ψ taking care of the different vector grades at the two sides of the equation. Electron spin and all the standard DEproperties *emerge* from this equation. In coordinate representation, the four orthonormal time-space frame vectors *X* µ appear instead of Dirac’s

This preprint is available for download as a PDF.

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