Introduction: Severe Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in neonates is possible but reports are scarce. Lung ultrasound (LUS) has been reported useful for triaging, diagnosing, and monitoring of patients with COVID-19.
Material and methods: We describe SARS-CoV-2 confirmed infection on a term newborn that developed pneumonia and pulmonary hypertension requiring mechanical ventilation. Ultrasonographic follow up of COVID-19 pneumonia and pulmonary hypertension was carried out. Histopathological and genetic study of the placenta was performed.
Results: A 3,140-g male infant born at 40.3 weeks’ gestation developed progressive respiratory distress (pulmonary hypertension) requiring mechanical ventilation. Real time PCR respiratory tract swabs for SARS COV 2 sampled on day 3 were positive for the baby and both parents. Lung ultrasound showed an irregular pleural line (shred sign), multiple confluent B-lines and bilateral ≥ 0.5 cm subpleural consolidations. Improvement of the lung and cardiac conditions were documented by ultrasound. The newborn was supported 6 days with mechanical ventilation, 3 days on CPAP and 3 days on oxygen. No antibiotics were used. The placenta showed histological findings linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection. RT-PCR from placental tissue showed amplification of viral E gene.
Conclusion: Our case represents a severe presentation of COVID-19 pneumonia with pulmonary hypertension requiring mechanical ventilation. LUS showed to be useful for diagnosis and follow up. Transversal infection was possible.