Measles is a highly contagious, serious disease caused by a virus [1,2]. Any person with fever, and non-vesicular rash, and cough, runny nose or red eyes is the suspect of measles case. Confirmed measles case is a suspected case with laboratory confirmation (positive for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody) . Measles is caused by a virus in the paramyxovirus family and it is normally passed through direct contact and through the air. The virus infects the respiratory tract, and then spreads throughout the body. Measles is a human disease and is not known to occur in animals .
Suspected measles outbreak is defined as occurrence of five or more reported suspected cases in one month in a defined geographic area, like, kebele, district or health facility catchment area whereas Confirmed measles outbreak is defined as occurrence of three or more laboratory confirmed cases in one month in a defined geographic area, like, kebele, district or health facility catchment area .
Before the introduction of measles vaccine in 1963 and widespread vaccination, major epidemics occurred approximately every 2–3 years and measles caused an estimated 2.6 million deaths each year [1, 2].
The disease remains one of the leading causes of death among young children globally, despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. Approximately 89 780 people died from measles in 2016 – mostly children under the age of 5 years .
In populations with high levels of malnutrition, particularly vitamin A deficiency, and a lack of adequate health care, about 3–6%, of measles cases result in death, and in displaced groups, up to 30% of cases result in death. Women infected while pregnant are also at risk of severe complications and the pregnancy may end in miscarriage or preterm delivery. People who recover from measles are immune for the rest of their lives [4, 5].
Measles outbreak is common in many developing countries but there is limited information in confirming the outbreak, describing the outbreak in terms of person, please and time, and identifying determinants of outbreak .
Measles is one of immediately reportable disease in Ethiopia. On Wednesday morning, July 12/2018, one Suspected measles case was reported from Golbo Arba kebele in Artuma fursi woreda. Within two hours, three field Epidemiology residents and one Artuma Fursi woreda health office Public health Emergency officer visited the reported Kebele (the smallest administrative unit of the woreda in Ethiopia) to confirm the existence of the outbreak, describe cases in person, place and time, and identify determinants of the outbreak.