The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects primarily the respiratory system but neurologic manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are possible. Serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) has recently been considered as a specific biomarker to quantitate neuro-axonal damage. Concentrations of sNfL were determined in a prospective cohort study of 100 health care workers (84 females, 16 males) following a COVID-19 outbreak in a large hospital by using the single molecule array (Simoa) NF-light advantage kit. Twenty eight health care workers contracted mild-to-moderate COVID-19, recovered after 1-3 weeks without hospitalization and showed no or only minor neurological symptoms such as anosmia, fatigue or headache. sNfL levels were consistently higher in older persons and multivariable linear regression analysis revealed COVID-19 status as an independent predictor of sNfL (p=.005). In conclusion, increased sNfL levels in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients points towards a more general neuro-destructive capability of SARS-CoV-2.