In this study, alcohol use disorders and associated factors among medical and surgical outpatients were assessed. The result revealed that a remarkable proportion 34.5% of the participants had alcohol use disorders, at 95% CI (29.20, 39.80). Our finding was consistent with those of other studies for example, 32.6% in Ethiopia among HIV/AIDS outpatients, 34.8% in South Africa in urban primary hospital outpatients , and 32.9% in Brazil among hospitalized patients. On the other hand, the current result is higher than those of two different studies in Ethiopia 21%, and 3%, 9.7% in Nigeria among patients attending family medicine, 25.1% and 10.8% in Kenya, 18.9% and 27.6% in two different institutional studies on hospital outpatients in South Africa [23, 24], 4.1% in a community-based survey and 5% in a facility study on men in Uganda, 9.5% in another institutional study on high risk sexual behavior outpatients in Uganda, 20.3% on tuberculosis patients, and 10.9% on primary health center male outpatients in south India, 15% in northern Ireland, 4.1% in Eastern Mediterranean region, and 7.3% in a study done at a primary health facility in Nepal. The possible reasons for the discrepancy might be variations in study populations. For instance, a community survey was carried out in Ethiopia, while only TB patients, who had chances to abstain due to their illnesses, were sampled in India. Furthermore, general outpatients were dealt with in Nigeria and the medication respondents used were focused on in Kenya, while both in and outpatients were studied in Ireland. Besides, differences in findings also relate to the tools used. For example, the Fast Screening Test was put to use in Ethiopia, whereas the short Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire was utilized in Brazil. Research results could also vary owing to study designs. For example, the Randomized Control Trial with follow ups ranging from six to twelve months was employed in South Africa. Moreover, investigation outcomes might also differ due to the socio-cultural practices of participants.
On the other hand, the prevalence of alcohol use disorder in this work is lower than that of a study conducted on medical and surgical outpatients aged 45–64 years in Nigeria (41.4%) , 53.5% on America Veteran Affairs outpatients  and 40.5% in Nepal . The possible reasons for the difference might be the tools. In Nigeria, for instance, a structured clinical interview Diagnostic Statistical Manual-IV was employed, while the International Classification of Disease-9 code for alcohol use disorder which has a high sensitivity for assessing such problems was used in America. When it comes to study populations; Veteran Affairs outpatients in America, while men in the 45–64 age group more prone to consume alcohol which is likely to increase prevalence were interviewed in Nigeria. In Nepal, only medical outpatients were considered. As a matter of fact, socio-cultural variations are also responsible for differences in study results.
In our study, the prevalence of AUDs was 85.6% among men and 14.4% for women (male: female ratio 5.9:1). This showed that the prevalence rates were much narrower than was reported in China 66:1, and slightly higher than those same epidemiological surveys in the United states 5:1 .
In this study, male sex was significantly associated with AUDs. The finding is supported by studies in Taiwan , the Republic of Ireland , Brazil, India , Tanzania, and Kenya. Alcohol drinking is more socially acceptable among males than females, predisposing men to AUDs.
In the current study, history of tobacco use was significantly associated with AUDs. The result is similar to findings in South Africa, Sri Lanka, and India. The possible explanation might be that smokers used alcohol to stop the stimulation of the nicotine after they smoked.
History of mental illness was significantly associated with AUDs. The finding of our study was similar to those of Ethiopia , Nigeria , and in South Africa. The possible explanation could be that patients were using alcohol as a self-treatment.
Participants who were using alcohol for relaxation were statistically significant predictors of AUDs. Psychological distress and stressful life events were risk factors for the use of alcohol a study reported in Sri Lanka. Users of alcohol for relaxation have chances to increase the dose of alcohol to get the desired effect. Therefore, they are prone to develop alcohol use disorders.