Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel harmful respiratory disease that has rapidly spread worldwide. At the end of 2019, COVID-19 emerged as a previously unknown respiratory disease in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The world health organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus outbreak a pandemic in the second week of March 2020. Simultaneous deep learning detection and classification of COVID-19 based on the full resolution of digital X-ray images is the key to efficiently assisting patients by enabling physicians to reach a fast and accurate diagnosis decision. In this paper, a simultaneous deep learning computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on the YOLO predictor is proposed that can detect and diagnose COVID-19, differentiating it from eight other respiratory diseases: atelectasis, infiltration, pneumothorax, masses, effusion, pneumonia, cardiomegaly, and nodules. The proposed CAD system was assessed via five-fold tests for the multi-class prediction problem using two different databases of chest X-ray images: COVID-19 and ChestX-ray8. The proposed CAD system was trained with an annotated training set of 50,490 chest X-ray images. The regions on the entire X-ray images with lesions suspected of being due to COVID-19 were simultaneously detected and classified end-to-end via the proposed CAD predictor, achieving overall detection and classification accuracies of 96.31% and 97.40%, respectively. Most test images from patients with confirmed COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases were correctly predicted, achieving average intersection over union (IoU) greater than 90%. Applying deep learning regularizers of data balancing and augmentation improved the COVID-19 diagnostic performance by 6.64% and 12.17% in terms of the overall accuracy and the F1-score, respectively. It is feasible to achieve a diagnosis based on individual chest X-ray images with the proposed CAD system within 0.0093 s. Thus, the CAD system presented in this paper can make a prediction at the rate of 108 frames/s (FPS), which is close to real-time. The proposed deep learning CAD system can reliably differentiate COVID-19 from other respiratory diseases. The proposed deep learning model seems to be a reliable tool that can be used to practically assist health care systems, patients, and physicians.