In recent years, with the restriction of carbon emissions in the world, more countries have changed their coal utilization technologies. China currently mainly uses coal resources and has a certain degree of dependence on oil and gas. It is particularly critical to improve the efficiency of coal power generation and reduce carbon dioxide and pollutant emissions in the period of energy transformation (Xu et al, 2019). Fuel cell power generation technology (Mcphail et al, 2015) has entered people's vision and has been continuously developed by various countries in the world. Fuel cell power stations were demonstrated in Europe, America and other countries (Bischoff et al, 2002).
The integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power generation technology, based on Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation, can greatly improve coal power efficiency and carbon dioxide capture (Duan etal, 2015), and achieve near zero emissions of carbon dioxide and pollutants. Fuel cell as its key power generation device has the advantages of high efficiency and environmentally friendly. It can directly convert chemical energy into electrical energy. The theory of energy conversion efficiency can reach over 85% without emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. As a high-temperature fuel cell, molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) has a wide range of fuel sources that does not rely on precious metals as electrode catalysts. It can be combined with gas turbines and steam turbines to achieve jointed heat and power, which improved energy utilization and conversion effectiveness. From the perspective of the application of fuel cells, the installed capacity of molten carbonate fuel cells in 2014 exceeded 70 MW, which was used in the fixed station power market. In 2015, the installed capacity of molten carbonate fuel cells reached 180 MW. In 2016, the number of MCFC power stations reached 100, and the installed capacity exceeded 200 MW.
Molten carbonate fuel cells are mainly used as large-scale power generation, distributed power generation and fixed power systems. It is still the largest single-unit installed capacity among different types of fuel cells(Bischoff, 2006; Dicks et al, 2000). It also has attached great importance and vigorously developed by the United States, Germany, Italy, South Korea, Japan and other countries (Plomp et al, 1992; Tanimoto et al, 1998). Fuel Cell Energy (FCE) of the United States continues to research and develop fuel cell-gas turbine power generation systems with the natural gas fuel. FCE has owned three commercial products of 300 kW to 2.8 MW MCFC, named DFC300MA, DFC1500 and DFC3000. The maximum effective area of a single cell can reach 1 m2 and the discharge current density of the stack is 80–120 mA/cm2. The power generation efficiency is greater than 47%, mainly used in hospitals, food freezing plants, sewage treatment plants, universities and mechanical processing plants. In 1995, Japan built a 1 MW power station and worked continuously for 6 years, composed of four 250KW fuel cell sets (Grillo et al, 2003). It will realize coal gasification combined cycle power generation and coal gasification fuel cell combined cycle power generation (IGFC) with the 55% power efficiency in the future goals. Europe and South Korea mainly develop internal reforming systems and cogeneration systems based on Fuel Cell energy's products. They installed and operated large-scale power plants from 100 kilowatts to megawatts in Europe. The MCFC power station (58.8 MW (2.8 MWx21 hydrogen fuel cell)) was established by South Korea's POSCO in Gyeonggi Province, which can provide power for 140,000 households, and completed the construction of 20 MW in Seoul.
In 2017, the Ministry of Science and Technology set up a major special project "CO2 near-zero emission coal gasification power generation technology" to conduct research and demonstration of MW-level thermal power integrated gasification fuel cell power generation system. The core of the project is to develop the first domestic 500 kW high temperature fuel cell power generation.
In this paper, the author studied the operation of the domestic 10kWMCFC fuel cell stack, and analyzed the problems existing in the operation of the stack and the next step in the development of technical development plans.